Haemodynamic Monitoring and Manipulation: An Easy Learning Guide
The adequacy of the cardio respiratory system can generally be gauged from basic clinical signs such as heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate and depth, skin texture and colour, use of accessory muscles of respiration and mental status. These basic signs should never be ignored, but in critical illness, basic clinical assessment alone may be unreliable and misleading. Therefore further monitoring techniques are usually required. Cardiac output and the circulation can be manipulated by ?uid and drug administration to ensure good oxygen delivery to the tissues but in order to do this, ongoing monitoring is required. Many healthcare professionals ?nd it difficult to get to grips with the more complex forms of haemodynamic monitoring and the use of inotropic and vasoactive agents; indeed these things can seem rather daunting. If you work your way through this book and carry out the exercises, you will soon become more con?dent and competent about haemodynamic monitoring and manipulation as well as understanding all the information that initially seems so complicated.
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Chapter 2 Monitoring blood pressure using an arterial line
Chapter 3 Central venous pressure monitoring
Chapter 4 Monitoring and maintenance of cardiac output and tissue perfusion
Chapter 5 The effects of shock
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Action Rationale adrenergic receptors aerload afterload air embolism and/or angiotensin arrhythmias arterial line balloon blood pressure BP CO PAP cardiac index cardiac monitor cardiac output cardiogenic shock cardiovascular system catheter causes cells contraclity CVP line diastolic dobutamine dose dynes ensure readings explain the results haemodynamic haemodynamic monitoring haemorrhage heart rate HR CVP BP hyperdynamic hypertension hypotension hypovolaemia hypovolaemic shock hypoxia increase cardiac contractility increases cardiac output indicate infection inotropic inotropic and vasoactive insertion left ventricle litre/min litre/min/mē SVR low cardiac output lumen maintain patient safety measures mmHg mmHg PAP norepinephrine normal oxygen delivery oxygen demand PAP CI PAWP PAWP SVR Briefly peripheral possible diagnosis preload pump failure readings are accurate Reduced tissue perfusion renal blood flow sepsis septic shock smooth muscle stimulates stroke volume SVO₂ SVR Briefly explain thermodilution thrombosis urine output vascular tone vasoactive agents vasoconstriction vasodilaon vasodilation venous return ventricular waveform