Handbook Series, Issue 8

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Page 164 - The northern nationalities preferred head-taking, the central and southern ones sacrifice, but few, if any, followed both customs, and not one, with the exception of the Mohammedans, had reached the point of abandoning both. Weapons. The prevailing weapons were the spear and the sword, the latter being replaced in parts of the head-hunting area of northern Luzon by the battle ax. In this matter also tribal bent was definite. A group that used the ax employed it consistently and had no swords, and...
Page 10 - Mohammedan contented himself with exacting such tribute as he could without radically altering existing conditions. Except therefore for a few importations, especially in the matter of weapons, he worked a less profound change in the general culture of the natives than the Christian. Back of these two great movements of religion and general culture, lies a deeper one, the most determinative of Philippine civilization. This is an influence, or rather a set of influences, emanating from India. These...
Page 80 - ... clearing of the ground, the planting, the cultivation, the harvesting, and the preservation of the crop. It is significant that even though other crops are grown, they very rarely have special ceremonies devoted to them. The native point of view is clearly that if the success of the rice is insured by the necessary magical and ceremonial means, other crops will automatically take care of themselves. When plant food is offered to the spirits in any connection, it is almost invariably rice. In...
Page 203 - A mark or point above changed the vowel of the syllable to e or i, and the same point below the character caused it to be sounded with the vowel o or u. The Bisaya, Pampanga, and other nations followed a very similar system of writing, and only the Mohammedans came to use Arabic script, which is much less adapted to the genius of the Malayan languages. The alphabets of Hindu origin have long since gone out of use among all the Christian nations, who now employ the ordinary Roman letters with their...
Page 203 - Tagalog filled the principal positions of power and prestige: "the warfare, religion, literature, industry, and agriculture were at one time in the hands of the Hindus." This is perhaps an exaggerated inference. East Indians saturated with Hindu civilization could just as well have produced the same effects in the Philippines. But it is clear that the effects occurred; and it will be only a matter of more patient and critical study to trace them with considerable accuracy, and perhaps even determine...
Page 101 - The natives make use of everything in trading with those nations and derive much profit therefrom. In this island of Luzon, especially in the provinces of Manila, Panpanga, Pangasinan, and Ylocos, certain earthenware jars [tibores] are found among the natives. They are very old, of a brownish color, and not handsome. Some are of medium size, and others are smaller, and they have certain marks and stamps. The natives are unable to give any explanation of where or when they got them, for now they are...
Page 202 - the words which Tagalog borrowed are those which signify intellectual acts, moral conceptions, emotions, superstitions, names of deities, of planets, of numerals of high number, of botany, of war and its results and consequences, and, finally of titles and dignities, some animals, instruments of industry, and the names of money.
Page 183 - If ugao seem to use no altars; the Bontok no spirit house. Their sacrifices are placed on the ground or before the dwelling. Few if any objects are manufactured for express service in worship: an everyday knife or spear or ax dispatches the victim, and the officiator, while he may put on his best, does not don distinctly religious clothing. Symbols of the type of our cross and the Mohammedan crescent, or the cloud terrace of the Pueblo Indians, the Filipino scarcely knows. Ceremonial Motives. The...
Page 138 - If one acquired supremacy, it was merely a manifestation of superior ferocity and capacity in combat, either in his own person or that of his following. In that case his overlordship was to an extent recognized; but passed away as soon as his power fell to pieces with his death or from any other cause. The ancient political history of the Philippines was accordingly one endless succession of insults, jealousies, threats, murders, feuds, and reconciliations between the innumerable little barangays;...
Page 79 - Fillpino of every condition, and the thing that probably occupies his life-long attention more than any one other. His most regular labor is that which he performs in the cultivation of this plant. In place of money, he uses measures of rice, both as standards of value and in actual transfers. The greatest article of wealth among so thoroughly pagan a people as the Ifugao is the rice field. A man who inherits enough of these is thereby rich and his position in society established. Rice fields are...

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