Handbook of Nanoscience, Engineering, and Technology

Front Cover
William A. Goddard III, Donald Brenner, Sergey Edward Lyshevski, Gerald J Iafrate
CRC Press, Oct 29, 2002 - Technology & Engineering - 824 pages
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Nanotechnology, science, and engineering spearhead the 21st century revolution that is leading to fundamental breakthroughs in the way materials, devices, and systems are understood, designed, made, and used. With contributions from a host of world-class experts and pioneers in the field, this handbook sets forth the fundamentals of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), studies their fabrication, and explores some of their most promising applications. It provides comprehensive information and references for nanoscale structures, devices, and systems, molecular technology and nanoelectromechanical theory, and promises to become a standard reference for the field.
 

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Contents

There1s Plenty of Room at the Bottom An Invitation to Enter a New Field of Physics
1-1
Room at the Bottom Plenty of Tyranny at the Top
2-1
22 Tyranny at the Top
2-2
23 New Forms of Switching and Storage
2-3
24 New Architectures
2-5
25 How Does Nature Do It?
2-6
Engineering Challenges in Molecular Electronics
3-1
32 SiliconBased Electrical Devices and Logic Circuits
3-2
Acknowledgments
12-20
References
12-23
13 Nanomanipulation Buckling Transport and Rolling at the Nanoscale
13-1
The NanoManipulator and Combined Microscopy Tools
13-2
133 Nanomanipulation for Mechanical Properties
13-6
134 Conclusion
13-16
Acknowledgments
13-17
Nanoparticle Manipulation by Electrostatic Forces
14-1

33 CMOS Device Parameters and Scaling
3-6
34 Memory Devices
3-11
35 Opportunities and Challenges for Molecular Circuits
3-12
36 Summary and Conclusions
3-16
Acknowledgments
3-17
Molecular Electronic Computing Architectures
4-1
42 Fundamental Physical Limitations of Present Technology
4-2
43 Molecular Electronics
4-3
44 Computer Architectures Based on Molecular Electronics
4-4
45 Characterization of Switches and Complex Molecular Devices
4-23
46 Conclusion
4-24
Acknowledgments
4-25
Nanoelectronic Circuit Architectures
5-1
52 QuantumDot Cellular Automata QCA
5-2
53 SingleElectron Circuits
5-7
54 Molecular Circuits
5-8
55 Summary
5-10
Nanocomputer Architectronics and Nanotechnology
6-1
61 Introduction
6-2
Retrospects and Prospects
6-3
63 Nanocomputer Architecture and Nanocomputer Architectronics
6-5
64 Nanocomputer Architectronics and Neuroscience
6-15
65 Nanocomputer Architecture
6-18
66 Hierarchical FiniteState Machines and Their Use in Hardware and Software Design
6-25
67 Adaptive Reconfigurable DefectTolerant Nanocomputer Architectures Redundancy and Robust Synthesis
6-28
68 Information Theory Entropy Analysis and Optimization
6-33
69 Some Problems in Nanocomputer HardwareSoftware Modeling
6-34
References
6-38
Architectures for Molecular Electronic Computers
7-1
Abstract
7-2
72 Background
7-3
73 Approach and Objectives
7-17
Design and Theoretical Characterization
7-18
75 Novel Designs for DiodeBased Molecular Electronic Digital Circuits
7-27
76 Discussion
7-33
77 Summary and Conclusions
7-39
Acknowledgments
7-42
References
7-43
Appendix 7A
7-49
Appendix 7B
7-56
Appendix 7C
7-64
Spintronics SpinBased Electronics
8-1
81 Spin Transport Electronics in Metallic Systems
8-2
82 Issues in Spin Electronics
8-6
83 Potential Spintronics Devices
8-10
84 Quantum Computation and Spintronics
8-13
85 Conclusion
8-15
QWIP A Quantum Device Success
9-1
92 QWIP Focal Plane Array Technology
9-2
93 Optical Properties of Semiconductor Nanostructures
9-4
94 Transport Properties of Semiconductor Nanostructures
9-15
95 Noise in Semiconductor Nanostructures
9-23
96 VoltageTunable QWIPs
9-32
97 Quantum Grid Infrared Photodetectors
9-34
98 Conclusion
9-36
Acknowledgments
9-37
Molecular Conductance Junctions A Theory and Modeling Progress Report
10-1
101 Introduction
10-2
102 Experimental Techniques for Molecular Junction Transport
10-3
The Generalized Landauer Formula
10-4
Diodes and Triodes
10-9
105 The Onset of Inelasticity
10-12
107 Onset of Incoherence and Hopping Transport
10-15
108 Advanced Theoretical Challenges
10-18
109 Remarks
10-22
Acknowledgments
10-23
Modeling Electronics at the Nanoscale
11-1
112 Nanostructure Studies of the SiSiO lnterface
11-2
113 Modeling of Quantum Dots and Artificial Atoms
11-7
114 Carbon Nanotubes and Nanotechnology
11-17
115 Simulation of Ionic Channels
11-25
116 Conclusions
11-29
Acknowledgments
11-30
Resistance of a Molecule
12-1
122 Qualitative Discussion
12-3
123 Coulomb Blockade?
12-8
124 Nonequilibrium Green1s Function NEGF Formalism
12-12
Quantum Point Contact QPC
12-15
126 Concluding Remarks
12-19
142 Theoretical Aspects of AC Electrokinetics
14-2
143 Applications of Dielectrophoresis on the Nanoscale
14-17
144 Limitations of Nanoscale Dielectrophoresis
14-27
145 Conclusion
14-30
Biologically Mediated Assembly of Artificial Nanostructures and Microstructures
15-1
151 Introduction
15-2
152 Biolnspired SelfAssembly
15-4
153 The Forces and Interactions of SelfAssembly
15-5
154 Biological Linkers
15-6
155 State of the Art in Biolnspired SelfAssembly
15-11
156 Future Directions
15-25
157 Conclusions
15-27
Acknowledgments
15-28
Nanostructural Architectures from Molecular Building Blocks
16-1
162 Bonding and Connectivity
16-3
163 Molecular Building Block Approaches
16-13
References
16-60
Nanomechanics
17-1
172 Linear Elastic Properties
17-4
173 Nonlinear Elasticity and Shell Model
17-5
174 Atomic Relaxation and Failure Mechanisms
17-8
175 Kinetic Theory of Strength
17-12
176 Coalescence of Nanotubes as a Reversed Failure
17-13
177 Persistence Length Coils and Random FuzzBalls of CNTS
17-15
Acknowledgments
17-17
Carbon Nanotubes
18-1
182 Structure and Properties of Carbon Nanotubes
18-2
183 Computational Modeling and Simulation
18-3
184 Nanotube Growth
18-12
185 Material Development
18-16
186 Application Development
18-18
187 Concluding Remarks
18-23
Mechanics of Carbon Nanotubes
19-1
191 Introduction
19-2
192 Mechanical Properties of Nanotubes
19-3
193 Experimental Techniques
19-20
194 Simulation Methods
19-29
195 Mechanical Applications of Nanotubes
19-39
196 Conclusions
19-48
Acknowledgments
19-49
Dendrimers An Enabling Synthetic Science to Controlled Organic Nanostructures
20-1
201 lntroduction
20-2
202 The Dendritic State
20-9
203 Unique Dendrimer Properties
20-22
204 Dendrimers as Nanopharmaceuticals and Nanomedical Devices
20-23
205 Dendrimers as Reactive Modules for the Synthesis of More Complex Nanoscale Architectures
20-27
206 Conclusions
20-28
Acknowledgments
20-29
Design and Applications of Photonic Crystals
21-1
212 Photonic Crystals How They Work
21-3
214 Analyzing Photonic Bandgap Structures
21-5
215 Electromagnetic Localization in Photonic Crystals
21-7
216 Doping of Photonic Crystals
21-8
217 Microcavities in Photonic Crystals
21-10
References
21-28
Nanostructured Materials
22-1
222 Preparation of Nanostructured Materials
22-2
223 Structure
22-5
224 Properties
22-19
225 Concluding Remarks
22-32
Acknowledgments
22-34
Nano and Micromachines in NEMS and MEMS
23-1
231 Introduction to Nano and Micromachines
23-2
Directions toward Nanoarchitectronics
23-4
233 Controlled Nano and Micromachines
23-7
Synthesis and Classification Solver
23-8
235 Fabrication Aspects
23-11
Preliminaries
23-13
238 Density Functional Theory
23-18
239 Electromagnetics and Quantization
23-21
2310 Conclusions
23-26
Contributions of Molecular Modeling to NanometerScale Science and Technology
24-1
241 Molecular Simulations
24-2
Forces on the Fly
24-12
243 Applications
24-13
244 Concluding Remarks
24-27
Acknowledgments
24-28
Index
1-1
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