## Handbook of Philosophical Logic, Volume 12such questions for centuries (unrestricted by the capabilities of any ha- ware). Theprinciplesgoverningtheinteractionofseveralprocesses, forexample, are abstract an similar to principles governing the cooperation of two large organisation. A detailed rule based e?ective but rigid bureaucracy is very much similar to a complex computer program handling and manipulating data. My guess is that the principles underlying one are very much the same as those underlying the other. Ibelievethedayisnotfarawayinthefuturewhenthecomputerscientist will wake up one morning with the realisation that he is actually a kind of formal philosopher! The projected number of volumes for this Handbook is about 18. The subjecthasevolvedanditsareashavebecomeinterrelatedtosuchanextent that it no longer makes sense to dedicate volumes to topics. However, the volumes do follow some natural groupings of chapters. I would like to thank our authors and readers for their contributions and their commitment in making this Handbook a success. Thanksalso to our publication administrator Mrs J. Spurr for her usual dedication and excellence and to Kluwer Academic Publishers (now Springer) for their continuing support for the Handbook. Dov Gabbay King's College London x PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION Logic IT Natural Program Arti?cialin- Logic p- language control spec- telligence gramming processing i?cation, veri?cation, concurrency Temporal Expressive Expressive Planning. Extension of logic power of tense power for re- Time depen- Horn clause operators. currentevents. dent data. with time Temporal Speci?cation Eventcalculus. capability. indices. Sepa- of tempo- Persistence Eventcalculus. ration of past ral control. through time— Temporal logic from future Decision prob- the Frame programming. |

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algebra answer set arrow Artificial Intelligence atoms axioms Baaz background assumptions Boolean Brewka calculus called Cartesian closed categories classical consequence classical logic clause form clause logic closure closure operation Cn(A complete conjunction consequence operations consequence relations consider consistent construction deduction default logic default rules default-assumption consequence defined definition derivable disjunction elementary letters elements equivalent example extension finite first-order first-order logic fixpoint function symbols GCWA ground resolution Heyting algebra induction inference interpretation Jiirgen Dix Knowledge Representation language Leitsch literals Logic Pro Logic Programming Makinson maximal monotonic natural number negation node nonmonotonic reasoning normal form notion object p-factor pivotal-valuation predicate logic preferential model premiss set principle probability function problem proof properties propositional quantifiers Reiter satisfies semantic tree sequence set of clauses set theory Springer subset substitution supraclassical theorem topos toposes transformation truth values type theory valuations variables well-founded semantics