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activity altitude appeared ascended ashes basalt black ledge boiling bottom caldera cinder cinder cones cliff cloud Coan column cone cooled cracks crater crust Dana depth Diamond Head discharge dome earthquakes edge elevation eruption feet high feet in diameter fifty feet fire fissures floor formed four hundred Haleakala Halemaumau Hawaii Hawaiian heat height hill Hilo Hualalai hundred and fifty island jets July Kahuku Keanakakoi Kilauea Kona lapilli later lava flows lava lake lava stream liquid lava lower pit mass Mauna Kea Mauna Loa miles Mokuaweoweo molten lava mountain natives nearly night Oahu observed ocean pahoehoe Pele Pele's hair Plate Professor pumice Puna Punaluu rising rock scoria seen side six hundred feet slope smoke south lake southwest stream of lava summit surface thirty feet three hundred feet tion tuff twenty feet vapors visited Volcano House Waiohinu walls waves
Page 144 - For, behold, the Lord cometh forth out of his place, and will come down, and tread upon the high places of the earth. And the mountains shall be molten under him, and the valleys shall be cleft, as wax before the fire, and as the waters that are poured down a steep place.
Page 172 - Immediately before us yawned an immense gulf, in the form of a crescent, about two miles in length, from north-east to south-west, nearly a mile in width, and apparently 800 feet deep. The bottom was covered with lava, and the south-west and northern parts of it were one vast flood of burning matter, in a state of terrific ebullition, rolling to and fro its " fiery surge
Page 171 - The steep which we had descended was formed of volcanic matter, apparently a light red and grey kind of lava, vesicular, and lying in horizontal strata, varying in thickness from one to forty feet. In a small number of places the different strata of lava were also rent in perpendicular or oblique directions, from the top to the bottom, either by earthquakes, or other violent convulsions of the ground connected with the action of the adjacent volcano.
Page 190 - The whole course of the stream from Kilauea to the sea is about forty miles. Its mouth is about twenty-five miles from Hilo station. The ground over which it flowed descends at the rate of one hundred feet to the mile. The crust is now cooled, and may be traversed with care, though scalding steam, pungent gases, and smoke are still emitted in many
Page 189 - The atmosphere in all directions was filled with ashes, spray, gases, etc.; while the burning lava, as it fell into the water, was shivered into millions of minute particles, and, being thrown back into the air, fell in showers of sand on all the surrounding country. The coast was extended into the sea for a quarter of a mile, and a pretty sand-beach and a new cape were formed. Three hills of scoria and...
Page 180 - ... ceased, and immediately after, flames burst from a large cone, near which we had been in the morning, and which then appeared to have been long inactive. Red-hot stones, cinders, and ashes, were also propelled to a great height with immense violence ; and shortly after, the...
Page 172 - The sides of the gulf before us, although composed of different strata of ancient lava, were perpendicular for about 400 feet, and rose from a wide horizontal ledge of solid black lava of irregular breadth, but extending completely round. Beneath this ledge the sides sloped gradually towards the burning lake, which was, as nearly as we could judge, 300 or 400 feet lower. It was evident, that the large crater had been recently filled with liquid lava up to this black ledge, and had, by some subterranean...
Page 102 - There was besides an endless variety in its forms. Now we passed a cascade, then a whirlpool, then a smooth majestic river, then a series of rapids, tossing their waves like a stormy sea: now rolling into lurid caverns, the roofs of which were hung with red hot stalactites, and then under arches which it had thrown over itself in sportive triumph.
Page 172 - ... the sides of the great gulf, and apparently quite detached from it. The streams of lava which they emitted rolled down into the lake, and mingled with the melted mass, which, though thrown up by different apertures, had perhaps been originally fused in one vast furnace.
Page 87 - Sometimes they resembled an inverted burning mountain with its apex pointing to the awful orifice over which it hung. Sometimes the glowing pillar would shoot up vertically for several degrees, and then describing a graceful curve, sweep off horizontally, like the tail of a comet, further than the eye could reach. The sable atmosphere of Hilo assumed a lurid appearance, and the sun's rays fell upon us with a yellow, sickly light. Clouds of smoke careered over the ocean, carrying with them ashes,...