Health Measurement Scales
Clinicians and those in health sciences are frequently called upon to measure subjective states such as attitudes, feelings, quality of life, educational achievement and aptitude, and learning style in their patients. This fourth edition of Health Measurement Scales enables these groups, who often have limited knowledge of statistics, to both develop scales to measure non-tangible health outcomes, and better evaluate and differentiate between existing tools. It covers how the individual items are developed; various biases that can affect responses (eg social desirability, yea-saying, framing); various response options; how to select the best items in the set; how to combine them into a scale; and then how to determine the reliability and validity of the scale. It concludes with a discussion of ethical issues that may be encountered, and guidelines for reporting the results of the scale development process. Appendices include a comprehensive guide to finding existing scales, and a brief introduction to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. It synthesizes the theory of scale construction with practical advice, making it the ultimate guide to how to develop and validate measurement scales that are to be used in the health sciences.
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Devising the items
Selecting the items
Biases in responding
Methods of administration
Reporting test results
A Further reading
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American ANOVA answer Applied approach areas assessment average behaviour bias calculate cent change scores Chapter classical test theory clinical cognitive concept construct validity content validity correlation criterion criterion validation curves depression dichotomous difficult discrimination discussed equation error variance estimate evaluation example facet factor analysis G coefficients G theory generalizability generalizability theory Guttman scaling indicate individual instrument inter-rater inter-rater reliability internal consistency interviewer item response theory Journal judgement Likert scale mean Medical methods normal number of items Number of Scales observations pain patients percentile person problem programs Psychological Measurement Psychometrics questionnaire questions random range Rasch model raters rating scales reliability coefficient response rate sample scale development simply social specific standard deviation standard error standard gamble statistical Streiner subjects survey Table technique telephone test-retest total score trait variables weights Yes Scales given