Health Professional Shortage Areas
This book identifies over 5,500 HPSAs designated throughout the United States as of September 2005; multiple federal programs relied on these designations to allocate resources or provide benefits. We estimated that slightly more than half of the HPSAs were designated for geographic areas or population groups, and these geographic and population-group HPSAs were located in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Facility HPSAs, which accounted for slightly less than half of the total number of HPSAs, were also located in every state and the District of Columbia. In fiscal year 2005, more than 30 federal programs-including programs administered by HRSA, CMS, and federal agencies outside of HHS-relied on HPSA designations and, in some cases, HPSA scores, to allocate resources or provide benefits. These included NHSC programs that award scholarships or educational loan repayment to students and health professionals in exchange for a commitment to practice in HPSAs for at least 2 years. Other programs relying on HPSA designations to allocate resources or provide benefits included programs that pay physicians bonus payments for services provided to Medicare beneficiaries in geographic HPSAs and programs that waive certain requirements for foreign physicians if they agree to practice in HPSAs or other underserved areas of the United States. The use of the HPSA designation by numerous federal programs to allocate resources or provide benefits is an incentive for obtaining and retaining a HPSA designation.
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HPSAs ARE LOCATED IN EVERY STATE AND ARE USED BY MULTIPLE FEDERAL PROGRAMS
Research Points to Shortcomings with Designation Methodology
Many Health Centers and Rural Health Clinics Did Not Benefit from Automatic HPSA Designation
Recommendations for Executive Action
Scoring of Health Professional Shortage Areas
Medically Underserved Area or Population Designations and Medically Underserved Community Definition
Scope and Methodology
Federal Programs Using Health Professional Shortage Area and Other Designations of Underservice
allocate resources area or population automatic facility HPSA automatic HPSA designation centers and rural consolidated health center counties Data Warehouse designated HPSAs designation as facility designations to allocate eligible facility HPSA designations federal programs Federal Register federally qualified health fiscal year 2005 foreign physicians funding preference geographic and population-group geographic HPSAs geographic or population-group grogram Health Professional Shortage health professions HPSA criteria HPSA designation system HPSA score HRSA officials HRSA's data identified J-l visa waiver located in geographic Medicaid medically underserved communities Medicare MUA and MUP MUP designations National Health Service NHSC Loan Repayment NHSC Scholarship Program number of HPSAs nurse practitioner percent physician assistants population groups population-group HPSAs practice in HPSAs primary care physicians primary care providers primary care services Professional Shortage Area provide benefits received a HPSA received automatic designation resources or provide rural health clinics September 2005 U.S. Virgin Islands visa waiver programs