Heat Energy and Fuels

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Read Books, 2008 - Science - 324 pages
Text extracted from opening pages of book: HEAT ENERGY AND FUELS PYROMETRY, COMBUSTION, ANALYSIS OP FUELS AND MANUFACTURE OF CHARCOAL, COKE AND FUEL GASES BY HANNS v. JUPTNER PROFESSOR, IMPERIAL AND ROYAL TECHNICAL INSTITUTE, VIENNA TRANSLATED BY OSKAR NAGEL, PH. D. NEW YORK McGRAW PUBLISHING COMPANY 239 WEST 39TH STREET 1908 COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY THE MoGIlAW PUBLISHING COMPANY NEW YORK Stanfcope iptess F. H. GILSON COMPANY BOSTON. USA TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE PBOFESSOB HAXXS vox JUPTXER has divided the study of chemical engineering into two groups, namely: energy and matter; and beginning with a general discussion of the various forms of energy, has written four volumes covering the subject both theoretically and practically. The present volume deals with heat energy and fuels, and contains a large amount of carefully tabulated data in conven ient form for use* A great deal of this data is new and will be welcomed by chemists, metallurgists and engineers. Although the book is intended for use in universities and engineering schools it is of equal value to practising engineers, since it gives not only the fundamental principles, but also the latest experimental data and practice. Among the topics of greatest practical interest are: Measure ment of high temperatures and late data on the melting points of various substances; discussion of incomplete combustion, combustion temperatures and combustion at constant volume and constant pressure, and an immense amount of data on solid, liquid and gaseous fuels and their production. The chapters on the gasification of fuels, which contain the results of the author's own experiments' as well as those of Strache and Jahoda, are of especial value. Thebook has been extremely well received in Europe, where it is widely used both in schools and in practice as a text-book and handbook. THE TRANSLATOR. YORK, November, 1908, CONTENTS CHAPTER I. GENERAL REMARKS. II. FORMS OF ENERGY INTRODUCTION. PAGE 1 11 VOLUME I. HEAT ENERGY AND FUELS. Part I. Heat Measurement, Combustion and Fuels. I. THE MEASUREMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURES ( PYROMETRY). 37 II. PYROMETRY ( Continued) . . . . . . 53 III. PYROMETRY ( Conclusion). OPTICAL, METHODS OF MEASURING TEMPERATURES . ... .... 68 IV. COMBUSTION HEAT AND ITS DETERMINATION .,91 V. DIRECT METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE COMBUSTION HEAT 110 VI. INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION ., . . .117 VII. COMBUSTION TEMPERATURE . . . 127 VIII. FUELS ( In General) . . 141 IX. WOOD . . . . 145 X. FOSSIL SOLID FUELS ( In General) .. . 155 XI. PEAT. . . . . . 166 XII. BROWN COAL ( Lignite) . . . . 173 XIII. BITUMINOUS AND ANTHRACITE COALS. . . . 178 XIV. ARTIFICIAL SOLID FUELS ... . 188 XV CHARCOAL ... . . . 191 XVI. PEAT-COAL, COKE AND BRIQUETTES ... 214 XVII. COKING APPARATUS 230 XVIII. LIQUID FUELS . ..... 241 XIX. GASEOUS FUELS, . . . . ... .... 243 XX. PRODUCER GAS. . . . 246 XXI. WATER GAS .... . . . . 268 XXII. DOWSON GAS, BLAST FURNACE GAS AND REGENERATED COM BUSTION GASES . . 287 XXIII. APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FUEL GASES . . . 292 INDEX 303 HEAT ENERGY AND FUELS INTRODUCTION. CHAPTER I. GE1TERAL REMARKS. IF we consider the immense strides that technical science has made in the second half of the nineteenth century; if we observe how prosperity is increasing; especially in the countries prominent in engineering; and how, as a natural sequence, the standing and influence of engineers are constantly growing in thesecountries, we are forced to ask by what means all this has come to pass in other words, to what circumstances are we indebted for this remarkable progress? A close study of the development of technical science shows its close connection with the natural development of mankind. At first, man had no other resource in his struggle with wild animals and natural forces than himself, that is, the organs given him by nature. Necessity taught him how to protect himself from cold by means of clothes, to seek protection from expo sure to the weather, and led Mm to build dwelli

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