Heating and Ventilating Buildings: A Manual for Heating Engineers and Architects

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J. Wiley & sons, Incorporated, 1915 - Heating - 598 pages
 

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Contents

Specific Heat
16
Latent Heat
17
Radiation
18
Reflection and Transmission of Radiant Heat
19
Diffusion of Heat
20
Convection or Heating by Contact
22
Systems of Warming
23
CHAPTER II
24
Diffusion of Gases
27
Oxygen
28
NitrogenArgon
30
Analysis of Air
31
Approximate Methods of Finding Carbon Dioxide CO2
33
Humidity of the Air
36
Measurement of the Relative Air Supply
39
Influence of the Size of the Room on Ventilation
43
ARTICLE PAGE
45
The Effect of Heat in Producing Motion of Air
53
Ventilationflues
61
Heat Required for Purposes of Ventilation
69
CHAPTER IV
81
Heat Transmission Varies with Circulation
89
Effect of Painting Radiating Surfaces
95
Tests of Indirect Heating Surfaces
104
CHAPTER V
124
ARTICLE PAGE The Flow of Air and Gases
130
Experiments on the Flow of Steam through Pipes
135
Charts for Flow of Steam in Pipes
141
Dimensions of Registers and Flues
142
Dimensions of Registers
144
Roof Ventilators
147
CHAPTER VI
148
Wroughtiron and Steel Pipe
150
Pipe Fittings
153
Valves and Cocks
159
Air valves
165
Expansionjoints
169
CHAPTER VII
172
VerticalPipe Steamradiators
175
Castiron Steamradiators
176
Hotwater Radiators
177
Directindirect Radiators
182
Proportions of Parts of Radiators
185
CHAPTER VIII
187
General Requisites of Steamboilers
188
Boiler Horsepower
189
Relative Proportions of Heating to Grate Surface 100
190
Water SurfaceSteam and Water Space
193
Requisites of a Perfect Steam Boiler
194
General Types of Boilers
195
The Horizontal Tubular Boiler
197
Locomotive and Marine Boilers
198
Watertube Boilers
200
Hotwater Heaters
202
ARTICLE PACE 82 Classes of Heatingboilers and Hotwater Heaters
203
Heatingboilers with Magazines
209
Boilers in Batteries
210
CHAPTER IX
211
Setting of Heating Boilers
215
The Safetyvalve
216
Appliances for Showing Level of Water in Boiler
220
Methods of Measuring Pressure
222
Damperregulators
224
Blowoff Cocks and Valves
225
Form of Chimneys
226
Chimneytops
228
Traps
230
Returntraps
233
General Directions for the Care of Steamheating Boilers
236
Care of Hotwater Heaters
238
Explosions of Hotwater Heaters
243
Prevention of Boiler Explosions
244
CHAPTER X
245
Definitions of Terms Used
246
Systems of Piping
248
Pipe Connections Steamheating Systems
251
Piping for Indirect Heaters
254
no Vacuum Circulating Systems
255
in General Principles
257
Amount of Heat and Radiating Surface Required for Warming
258
Wolfes Diagram
260
The Amount of Surface Required for Indirect Heating
262
Summary of Approximate Rules for Estimating Radiating Surface
266
Computation of Steam Piping
268
Rules for Steam Pipe Sizes
270
Size of Returnpipes Steamheating
272
Short Method of Computing Radiation
276
CHAPTER XI
280
Systems of Exhaust Heating
281
Proportions of Radiating Surface and Main Pipes Required in Exhaust Heating
282
District Heating
286
The Webster System
289
Diagrams with Cochrane Steam Stack Heaters
292
The Paul System
294
The Johnson System of Hermetic Heating
297
Combined High and Lowpressure Heating Systems
298
The Steam Loop
300
Reducing Valves
302
Transmission of Steam Long Distances
303
Sizes of Pipes for Hotwater Radiators
319
Combination Systems of Heating
323
CHAPTER XIII
327
157 General Form of a Furnace
329
Proportions Required for Furnace Heating
331
Airsupply for the Furnace
335
Pipes for Heated Air
336
The Areas of Registers or Openings into Various Rooms
339
Circulating Systems of Hot Air
341
x64 General Directions for Operating Furnace
342
ARTICLE PACE 165 Practical Arrangement of Furnaces
343
The Federal Furnace League
346
Rules for Furnace Heating
350
CHAPTER XIV
352
Steel Plate Fans or Blowers
353
The Guibal Chimney
356
Multivane Fans
357
Propeller or Disk Fans
359
Volume or Positive Blowers
361
Work of Moving Air through Pipes
365
Dimensions of Pipelines for Air
366
Formulas for Approximate Dimensions and Capacities of Fans
368
Characteristic Curves of Multivane Fans
371
Maximum Pressure Produced by Fan or Blower
373
Velocity and Volume
377
Work Required to Run a Fan
379
Practical Rule for Capacity
380
Practical Rule for Power
381
Relative Efficiency of Fans or Blowers and of Heated Flues
382
Disk and Propeller Fans
387
Measurement of Air Supplied to a Room
388
Introduction of Air into Rooms
389
CHAPTER XV
392
Volume or Regulating dampers
396
Form of Steamheatel Surface
397
Ducts or FluesRegisters
398
Blowers or Fans
403
Heating Surface Required
404
Size of Boiler Required
405
Practical Construction of the Hotblast System of Heating
406
Description of Mechanical Ventilating Plant
408
Tests of Blower Systems of Heating
415
Charts for Vento Heaters
420
Table for Wroughtiron Pipe Heaters
421
Carriers Theory of Convection with Forced Ventilation
424
CHAPTER XVI
427
Formula? and General Considerations
430
Construction of Electrical Heaters
434
Connections for Electrical Heaters
435
CHAPTER XVII
436
Regulators Acting by Change of Pressure
437
The Powers Regulator
438
Regulators Operated by Direct Expansion
441
Relative Rates of Expansion
442
Pneumatic Motor System
444
Construction of Pneumatic Thermostat
447
The Johnson Positive Thermostat
449
Johnson Intermediate Thermostat
450
Humidity Regulators
451
CHAPTER XVIII
453
Relation of Pure Air to Vitality
454
Means for Reducing Draughtiness
455
Little Draughtiness in Outflowing Currents
457
Cost
458
Supply of Air for Rooms not Frequently Occupied
459
Course of Air Supply
460
Quick Preparatory Warming
462
Warming by Rotation
463
Automatic Control of Temperature
464
ARTICLE PAGE 238 Double Sashing
465
Location of Inlets
466
Air Filtration
467
Heating of Workshops and Factories
475
Summary of Approved Methods for Design of Steam and Hotwater Systems of Heating
476
CHAPTER XIX
479
General Requirements
480
Form of Uniform Contract
483
Duty of the Architect
487
Methods of Estimating Costs of Construction
488
Suggestions for Pipe Fittings
489
Protection from FireHotair and Steam Heating
492
Heating and Ventilating Laws
495
CHAPTER XX
515
Humidity and Its Determination
517
Dust
520
Solubility of Gases
521
Combustibility of Gases
522
Automatic Humidity Control
524
Relative Humidity Variation
525
Power Required for Operating Humidifiers
526
Relation of Cooling Effect to Percentage of Relative Humidity
527
Dehumidifier
529
Refrigeration Required for Dehumidifying
530
Air Washers
531
APPENDIX Literature and References
533
Current Literature of the Day
535
Tables
538
Index
585
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Page 495 - XIII. The said parties for themselves, their heirs, executors, administrators, and assigns, do hereby agree to the full performance of the covenants herein contained. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties to these presents have hereunto set their hands and seals, the day and year first above written. In presence of
Page 494 - against such lien or claim. Should there prove to be any such claim after all payments are made, the Contractor shall refund to the Owner all moneys that the latter may be compelled to pay in discharging any lien on said premises made obligatory in consequence of the Contractor's default.
Page 522 - 15 square feet of floor space and 200 cubic feet of air space for each •pupil to be accommodated in each study or recitation room therein, and no such plans shall be approved by said board unless provision is made therein for assuring at least
Page 513 - 15 square feet of floor space and 200 cubic feet of air space for each pupil to be accommodated in each study or recitation room therein, and no such plans shall be approved by him unless provision is made therein for assuring at least
Page 512 - square feet of floor space and 200 cubic feet of air space for each pupil to be accommodated in each study or recitation room therein. " i. Light shall be admitted from the left or from the left and rear of classrooms and the total light area must, unless strengthened by the use of reflecting lenses, be equal to at least 20
Page 522 - of two or more stories in height shall open outwardly. No staircase shall be constructed except with straight runs, changes in direction being made by platforms. No doors shall open immediately upon a flight of stairs, but a landing at least the width of the doors shall be provided between such stairs and such
Page 519 - shall hereafter be erected until the plans and specifications for the same shall have been submitted to a commission consisting of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Secretary of the State Board of Health, and an architect to be appointed by the Governor, and their approval endorsed thereon. Such plans and specifications shall show in detail the
Page 494 - or claim for which, if established, the Owner of the said premises might become liable, and which is chargeable to the Contractor, the Owner shall have the right to retain out of any payment then due, or thereafter to become due, an amount sufficient to completely indemnify
Page 508 - Every public building and every schoolhouse shall be kept clean and free from effluvia arising from any drain, privy or nuisance, shall be provided with a sufficient number of proper water closets, earth closets, or privies, and shall be ventilated in such
Page 513 - air every minute per pupil, and the facilities for exhausting the foul or vitiated air therein shall be positive and independent of atmospheric changes. No tax voted by a district meeting or other competent authority in any such city, village or school district exceeding the sum

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