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Geodetic Levelling Networks in Western
TIME AND HEIGHTS
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5A H 5AgH accuracy approach arithmetic mean base functions Canada Canadian coefficients computed covariance matrix datum deforming earth design matrix detect VCM differential refraction Earthquake Locations eustatic extracted formulated Geodetic levelling geoid geopotential numbers given Grafarend gravimeter gravimetry gravity potential gravity variations height difference differences height network height systems holonomic homogeneous hydrostatic equilibrium hyperboloid instrument kinematic adjustment kinematic information Kukkamaki level observations levelling networks linear or higher loading loop misclosures mean epoch measurements Nassar normal gravity observation equations observed height differences optimum order design problem orthometric heights parameter space Peltier phenomena point height variations Pointe au Pere polar motion postglacial reference surface scattered relevelled segments separately adjusted space-time spatial spherical harmonic system of normal systematic effects Takalo temperature temporal changes terrestrial techniques tidal tide gauge tilt information tiltmeters tions uplift rates Vanicek and Krakiwsky variance-covariance matrix vector vertical crustal movements vertical displacement field Waalewijn zero