Herbal Drugs and Fingerprints: Evidence Based Herbal Drugs
Evidence based herbal drugs are on hi-acceptance day by day due to health friendly nature compared to synthetic drugs. The active ingredients in herbal drugs are different chemical classes, e.g. alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, steroids, terpenes etc., are identified at molecular level using current analytical practices, which are unique characteristic, as finger, so known as fingerprints. The fingerprints are used for assessment of quality consistency and stability by visible observation and comparison of the standardized fingerprint pattern, have scientific potential to decipher the claims made on these drugs for authenticity and reliability of chemical constituents, with total traceability, which starts from the proper identification, season and area of collection, storage, their processing, stability during processing, and rationalizing the combinational in case of polyherbal drugs. These quality oriented documents have ample scientific logics so well accepted globally by regulatory authorities and industries, to determine intentional/ unintentional contamination, adulteration, pollutants, stability, quality, etc. parameters. Based on geo-climatic factors, a same plant species has different pharmacological properties due to different ingredients; such regional and morphological variations are identified by fingerprints, at the time of collection of the medicinal herb. The chromatographic (TLC, HPTLC, HPLC, GC,) and spectral (UV-Vis., FTIR, MNR, MS, LC-MS, GC-MS etc.) techniques have world-wide strong scientific approval as validated methods to generate the fingerprints of different chemical classes of active ingredients of herbal drugs. Presently there is a need for a book having all the fingerprinting techniques for herbal drugs at a place with theory, case studies and art to discover patentable forms. The present book is a mile stone in the subject, to be utilized by Scientists, Medical Doctors, Technicians, Industrialists, Researchers, and Students both in PG and UG levels.
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absorbance absorption acetate active alkaloids Anal analysis analytical antioxidant application atoms band berberine biological chemical Chinese chromatographic fingerprint chromatography column components compounds constituents detection detector determination developed DNA fingerprinting Echinacea electron electrospray electrospray ionization energy essential oils ethyl acetate evaluation extract fatty acids flavonoids fluorescence fraction fragments FTIR FTIR spectroscopy GC–MS ginseng ginsenosides herbal drugs herbs HPLC HPTLC HSQC hyphenated identification infrared ingredients ionization irradiated liquid markers mass spectrometry medicinal plants metabolic metabolites metabolomics metals methanol method mixture mobile phase molecular molecules nanoparticles natural products peak pesticide residues pesticides pharmaceutical phenolics phytochemical plant material preparation presence profiles protons quality control quantitative radiation reagent region sample saponins sensitivity separation signals silica gel solution solvent species spectra spectroscopy spectrum standard stationary phase structure technique temperature tion TLC plate toxic traditional UV–Vis wavelength