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SOME ALBERTA EXPERIENCE WITH PENETRATIONGRADED
VISCOSITY GRADING FOR ASPHALT CEMENTS
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AAPT AASHO specification absolute viscosity Academy aggregate Alberta Asphalt Institute asphalt pavement asphalt-cement asphaltene asphaltic concrete asphalts produced Assn ASTM binder centistokes compaction construction cosity Creep Deformation degrees F density different asphalts ductility durability Engineering failure strain Federal Highway Administration Flash point flow properties given in Table Gotolski grade asphalt cement grade of asphalt grading at 140 Heukelom limits low temperature minimum viscosity nil winter obtained Ontario paving mixture penetration at 77 penetration grade asphalt penetration test perature percent percentage of air performance phalts poises problems Proc properties of asphalts range in viscosity relationship requirements residue retained penetration rheological RTFOT sample shear rate shown in Figure shows Skog stiffness modulus studies supplier temperature susceptibility temperature-sensitive asphalt cements tensile splitting test test pavements TFOT thin-film oven test tion TlME months traffic transverse cracking trichloroethylene variability viscosity at 140 viscosity at 275 viscosity grading viscosity-graded asphalts viscosity-temperature Welborn winter