Historic Storms of the North Sea, British Isles and Northwest Europe
The North Sea regions are some of the busiest shipping lanes in the world (which have recently seen the introduction of oil and gas rigs), and the surrounding land areas are some of the most populous. This book presents a historical investigation of great storms that have affected the North Sea and neighboring northern seas, the British Isles, and the fringe of northwest Europe. All those wind storms with serious effects that could be identified within the past 500-600 years are recorded and a few earlier cases discussed. In every case, observations of weather and other circumstances reported during the storm have been used to produce a modern and reasonably full meteorological analysis that will facilitate wind strength estimates and wind measurements and aid in the diagnosis of storm origins. As a scientific study, this work takes advantage of the unequaled abundance in this region of historical reports and records. The book is destined to further meteorological understanding and help examine weather trends and secular variations and the impact of storms on human affairs, especially in damage to buildings, forests, and other aspects of the landscape, particularly coasts. It will be of interest to atmospheric scientists, engineers, geographers, historians, and administrators.
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90 knots analysis anticyclone Arctic Atlantic barometric pressure Bay of Biscay Beaufort force Biscay blown Britain British Isles central North Sea central pressure century Channel coast of Norway cold air cold front cyclone centre damage Danish December Denmark depression dykes eastern England Europe farther north February force 9 frontal wave gale force geostrophic wind German Bight gradient winds Hebrides indicated Ireland island January jetstream Jutland knots land later latitudes London low pressure centre Maximum wind strengths measured Meteorology N'ly gale N'ly winds North Sea North Sea coast northeast northwest Norway Norwegian Sea NW'ly Observations October pressure gradients probably rain reached region reported S'ly sand Scotland sea flood sea level seems ships Skagen Skagerrak snow southern England southern North Sea southwest storm winds strongest gradient winds strongest gusts strongest winds Style SW'ly Sweden temperatures tide W'ly Wales warm sector western wind direction wind speeds