Historical Dictionary of the Crusades
Scarecrow Press, 9 мая 2013 г. - Всего страниц: 412
The crusades were among the longest and most bitter wars in human history and consisted of no less than seven major expeditions from Western Europe from the late 11th to the early 14th centuries for the purpose of wresting Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the control of the Muslims. In the end, it was the Muslims who won, and the Christians who suffered a major setback, and the Middle East remained firmly in Muslim hands. This was one of the worst clashes between different religions and civilizations and, for long, it was largely forgotten or brushed over. That is no longer the case, with many Muslims regarding Western interference in the region as a repeat of the crusades while launching their own jihads. So, while an old conflict, it is still with us today.
Even at the time, it was very hard to understand the causes and outcome of the crusades, and that remains a problem today. This Historical Dictionary of the Crusades cannot claim to have resolved it, but it most definitely does make the situation easier to understand. The introduction provides an overview, tracing the crusades from one expedition to the next, and assessing their impact. The actual flow of events is far easier to follow thanks to the chronology. And maps help to trace the events geographically. The entries, and there are more than 300 of them in this second edition, look more closely at notable figures, including Pope Gregory VII, Richard “the lionhearted,” and Saladin, as well as important places (Jerusalem, Constantinople and others), events, battles and sieges, as well as the use of weapons and armor. The bibliography points to further reading.
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12th century Acre al-Din Albigensian Crusade Aleppo Alfonso Amalric Antioch Aragon Ascalon attack Ayyubid Baldwin IV Baltic battle bishop Bohemond Byzantine Byzantium caliph canons castle Cathars Christian chronicle church conquered conquest Conrad Constantinople cross crusade army crusader kingdom Cyprus Damascus died dynasty Edessa Egypt Empire England Europe expedition Fatimids Fifth Crusade ﬁrst Flanders ﬂeet forces Fourth Crusade France Frederick Genoa Greek Guy of Lusignan heir Henry Holy Land Holy Roman Emperor Holy Sepulchre Iberia inﬂuence Islam Ismailis Italy Jews John King Louis Kingdom of Jerusalem knights Latin Kingdom leaders Levant Mamluk married medieval Mediterranean military orders Mongol Montferrat Murabit Muslim northern papacy papal patriarch Peter pilgrimage pilgrims Pope preached Raymond Reconquista refer regent relic Reynald Richard Robert ruler Saladin Second Crusade Seljuk Seljuk Turks ships shrine Sicily siege southern Spain sultan Syria Templars territory Third Crusade took Tripoli troops Turks Tyre University Press warfare William