Historical Foundations of Cognitive Science

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J.C. Smith
Springer Netherlands, Jan 31, 1990 - Philosophy - 306 pages
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My interest in gathering together a collection of this sort was generated by a fortuitous combination of historical studies under Professor Keith Lehrer and studies in cognitive science under Professor R. Michael Harnish at the University of Arizona. Work on the volume began there while I was an instructor in the Department of Linguistics and was greatly encouraged by participants in the Faculty Seminar on Cognitive Science chaired by Professor Lance J. Rips. I wish to express my appreciation to all of these and to many other individuals with whom I discussed the possibility of contribution to this work. I am especially grateful to the authors of the essays included here, as they showed more patience than I could have hoped for in seeing me through a number of uncertain stages in development of the project. My thanks are also due to my colleague Charles Reid for assistance in reviewing submissions, to Tim McFadden for computer resources, and again, to Keith Lehrer for continuing advice in arrangements for publication. Financial support for manuscript preparation was provided in part under University Research Grant No. 617 from the University Research Council, Youngstown State University.

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About the author (1990)

JC Smith graduated with a BS from the University of California at Berkeley where he experienced the Free Speech Movement. He later received his MA in the Sociology of Sport while coaching at Rutgers University, and he attained his DC degree from Life Chiropractic College, graduating with honors. Although his educational background had a strong foundation, it would not prepare him from the battles he encountered in the medical war against chiropractors he has experienced over his 33-year career. Dr. Smith realized the role of a chiropractor was clouded by innuendo, boldface slander, and prejudice stemming from the medical profession. As a man who was always on top of the heap as an outstanding student, an All-American athlete in college, and an adventurer rafting the great white-water rivers of the wild West, his encounter with the medical bias left him frustrated. Compounding this medical discrimination was the trail of failed back surgery victims who came seeking his help. Time and time again he realized these patients had been misdiagnosed, mistreated, and misinformed when simple yet effective chiropractic care solved their misery. Instead, when patients ask if chiropractic might help, they were often told not to do so because it might paralyze them, which is complete nonsense but effective to scare patients into spine surgery. This first-hand view of the collateral damage of the medical war prompted him to expose this tragedy to the public-a story any veteran chiropractor could tell. This task became a labor of love as he piled through the volumes of research on spine care that began as far back as the early 1990s showing the misguided disc theory that has led to an epidemic of back pain and failed surgery. Moreover, the history of this war between the AMA and chiropractic was a part of American history never before revealed to the public. In fact, the medical bigotry toward chiropractic can be traced back to one man, Morris Fishbein, who headed the AMA for a quarter of a century. Not only did Fishbein soil the chiropractors' reputation with propaganda, he also laid the foundation of antitrust activity that led to a federal court trial that began in 1976 and ended in 1990. As a writer and as a chiropractor, JC Smith gives the reader a first-hand account of the experiences only a chiropractor can tell-the untold story of chiropractic from persecution to vindication.