Historical and current forest and range landscapes in the interior Columbia River Basin and portions of the Klamath and Great Basins
Paul F. Hessburg, Pacific Northwest Research Station (Portland, Or.), United States. Bureau of Land Management
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 1999 - Nature - 357 pages
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appendix area and connectivity area vulnerable average Blue Mountains bunchgrass Central Idaho Mountains Colline Columbia Plateau Columbia River basin cover increased cover types crown cover class current condition Douglas-fir dwarf mistletoe Ecological reporting unit Engelmann spruce exotic fire exclusion forest and woodland forest structures grand fir H C MD herbland historical and current interior Columbia River juniper landscape lodgepole pine Low Moderate High Lower Clark Fork mean patch medium and large midscale ecological assessment Montane mountain pine beetle Nonforest Nonforest-nonrange Northern Cascades Northern Glaciated Mountains Northern Great Basin overstory Owyhee Uplands patch density increased patch size declined patch size increased patch types Percentage of area pine beetle type ponderosa pine S-group sample period shrubland shrubs Snake Headwaters species Stem exclusion structural classes subalpine fir Subalpine/alpine subbasin subshrubs subwatershed U.S. Department understory understory reinitiation Upper Clark Fork Upper Klamath Upper Snake vulnerability factor western larch western white pine