History and Progress of the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture for the First Quarter of a Century, with a Report on Fruits, at the Annual Meeting, Feb. 5, 1878

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Rand, Avery, & Company, printers to the Commonwealth, 1878 - Fruit-culture - 21 pages
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Page 20 - The process of ripening on the tree, which is the natural one, seems to act upon the fruit for the benefit of the seed, as it tends to the formation of woody fibre and farina. When the fruit is removed from the tree, at the...
Page 19 - Autumnal fruits have been kept and exhibited the succeeding spring. We have seen the Seckel, Bartlett, and Louise Bonne de Jersey pears in perfection in January, and even later. The maturity of fruits depends on saccharine fermentation. This is followed by other fermentations, as the vinous and acetous. To prevent these, and preserve fruit in all its beauty, freshness, and flavor, the temperature must be uniform, and kept below the degree at which the fermentation or the ripening process commences....
Page 11 - State was confined principally to apples and peaches. But very few of the latter found their way to the markets of the North ; while strawberries and other small fruits were scarcely to be seen, except in the locality where they were raised. Now, the culture of fruits has extended from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast. Almost every steamer from New York for Liverpool or London, in the fall and winter months, takes apples, varying from five hundred to three...
Page 12 - ... estimated as follows: apples, 112,000,000; pears, 28,260,000 ; peaches, 112,270,000 ; grapes, 141,260,000 ; total, 393,790,000. The estimated value of fruit products is, apples, $50,400,000; pears, $14,130,000; peaches, $56,135,000 ; grapes, $2,118,900; strawberries, $5,000,000; other fruits, $10,432,800 ; making a grand total of $138,216,700, or nearly equal to one-half of the value of our average wheat-crop.
Page 11 - This species infests a great variety of plants, and is to be found throughout our country from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Page 20 - Experience proves that for the common varieties of the apple and pear, about forty degrees of Fahrenheit is the temperature best suited to hold this process in equilibrium. The proper maturing of fruit thus preserved demands skill and science. Different varieties require different degrees of moisture and heat, according to the firmness of the skin, the texture of the flesh, and the natural activity of the juices. Thus, some varieties of the pear will ripen at a low temperature and in a comparatively...
Page 20 - ... saccharine fermentation or conveys the agents which produce it, can be admitted or excluded at pleasure. It is possible, however, to preserve the temperature at so low a degree and for so long a time, as to destroy, especially with some varieties of the pear, the vitality, and therefore all power ever to resume the ripening process. Experience proves that for the common varieties of the apple and pear, about forty degrees of Fahrenheit is the temperature best suited to hold this process in equilibrium....
Page 11 - June 5JO, 1861, the amount of $269,000; in 1871 it was $509,000; while for the year ending June 30, 1877, it...
Page 5 - By the act constituting the State board, all the duties which had been performed by the secretary of state in regard to agricultural matters now devolved on the secretary of the board. Thus a new and independent system of operations was established, whereby the secretary became the chief officer and organ of the board, on whom has since devolved the duty of digesting the returns of the societies and of preparing the annual volume of the department. This annual volume embraces...
Page 4 - Resolved, That, inasmuch as agriculture is the chief occupation of her citizens, the Commonwealth, in the organization of its government, should be provided with a Department of Agriculture, with offices commensurate with the importance of the duties to be discharged, of the abilities to be required, and of the labors to be performed.

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