History of Europe: From the Fall of Napoleon, in 1815, to the Accession of Louis Napoleon, in 1852, Volum 2

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W. Blackwood and sons, 1853
 

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The physical circumstances of Spain favoured commerce but not manufac tures
10
Effect of the longcontinued hostility with the Moors
11
Impolitic laws of Spain in regard to money
12
Important effect of the Romish faith
13
Difference of the towns and country in respect of political opinion
14
Disposition of the army
15
The church
16
State of the peasantry
17
State of the nobility
18
Huge gap in the revenue from the loss of the South American colonies
19
how it was formed 21 Its extreme democratic tendency
21
Utter unsuitableness of the constitution to the generality of Spain
22
Universal unpopularity of the Cortes and constitution
23
Influence of the Cortes on South America
24
effect of the removal of the seat of government to Rio Janeiro
25
Its general adoption of English habits and ideas
26
Character of Ferdinand VII
29
Decree of Valencia
31
VOL II
33
15
38
Further violent proceedings of the king and Porliers revolt
39
i
42
19
43
Double marriages of the royal families of Spain and Portugal
45
20
48
Disastrous fate of the first expedition to Lima
51
21
52
22
58
Sale of Florida to the Americans
59
25
65
Reception of the revolution at Barcelona Valencia and Cadiz
73
347 348 349 350 351 352
76
Revolution attempted by Riego
78
Page 251
82
The kings circular to the electors
93
Result of the elections favourable to the Royalists
94
Effect of the change in the Assembly
95
Accession of Villèle c to the ministry
96
Speech of the king and answer of the Chambers
97
Measures of the session fixing the boundaries of the electoral districts
98
Law for additional ecclesiastical endowments
99
Modifications in the cornlaws
100
Law for the indemnity of the Imperial donataries
101
Law regarding the censorship of the press
102
Speech of M Pasquier on the occasion
103
Increasing irritation of parties and difficulties of the ministry
104
Rupture with the Royalists and fall of the Richelieu ministry
105
The new ministry
106
Reflections on this event
107
Great effects of the change in the electoral law
108
Defects of the representative system in France
109
Undue ascendancy of the PartiPrêtre
110
Cause of the reaction against Liberal institutions
111
Death of Napoleon
112
Reflections on his captivity
113
Great exaggeration regarding the English treatment of him
114
Lamartines account of his exile
115
Irritation between him and Sir Hudson Lowe
116
All parties were wrong regarding his treatment at St Helena
117
Change on Napoleon before his death
118
His death
119
His first acts of administration and training of the army
120
Immense sensation it excited in Europe
121
He was the last of the men who rule their age
122
Their unity of purpose
126
28
128
Unity of interest in the empire
132
Of the bourgeois and trading classes
138
29
141
Condition of the exiles in Siberia
142
Generous conduct of the emperor to the relatives of the convicts
143
Opinion of M Haxthausen on the serfs and their enfranchisement
144
Great reforms in all departments introduced by the emperor
145
Great legal reforms of the emperor
146
Crime of the insurgents
147
Coronation of the emperor and empress at Moscow
148
Character of the Emperor Nicholas and parallel between him and Peter in the Great
149
Causes which have led to this character
150
His personal appearance and failings
151
The Cossacks
157
Striking instances of this corruption
163
Liberal ideas with which the troops returned from France and Germany
169
Vigorous measures adopted against the insurgents
174
Alexanders memorable speech to the Diet
175
358
177
360
178
Congress of Troppau
181
What share had the Holy Alliance in this
187
Increasing difficulties of the insurgents
193
Alexander refuses to support the Greeks
199
Death of Alexanders natural daughter
211
And death
217
How this came about
223
Information given of the conspiracy to Alexander
229
Nicholas advances against the rebels
236
Leaders of the revolt in the army of the south
243
Reflections on this event
249
254
255
ROYALIST REACTION IN FRANCE FRANCE FROM THE COUP DETAT OF 5TH MARCH 1819 TO TIE ACCESSION OF THE PURELY ROYA...
263
265
265
270
270
14 Increasing violence and exasperation of the press 15 Budget of 1819
275
Preparations for the election of 1819
278
de Serres TES
279
His character 22 Conversation of Louis XVIII and the Count dArtois on the election 23 Change in the ministry
282
Violent attacks on the new ministry by the press 25 Kings speech at opening the session 26 Comparative strength of parties in the Chamber 27 Design...
285
236
288
The Duke de Berri
289
His biography
290
Louvel his assassin
291
Assassination of the Duke de Berri
292
3536 His last moments 293294
293
His death
295
Immense sensation which it produced
296
Chateaubriands words on the occasion
297
General indignation against M Decazes
298
274
299
He at length agrees to his dismissal
300
Resiguation of M Decazes and the Duke de Richelieu sent for
301
The kings inclination for Platonic attachments
302
Her first interview with Louis which proves successful ib 47 Character of M Decazes
304
Merits of his measures as a statesman ib 49 Division of parties in the Assembly after M Decazes fall
306
Funeral of the Duke de Berri and execution of Louvel
307
5152 Ministerial measures of the session Argument against the first 308309
308
Answer by the Government
309
5455 Censorship of the press Argument against it by the Opposition
311
5657 Answer by the Ministerialists 312313
312
Result of the debate
314
Reflections on this subject
315
Alarming state of the country and defensive measures of Government
316
Denunciation of the secret government
317
Ministerial project of a new electoral law Taw
318
6366 Argument against it by the Opposition 319321
319
6771 Answer by the Ministerialists 321324
321
CamilleJourdans amendment carried
325
The amendment of M Boin is carried by Government
326
Disturbances in Paris
328
The budget
330
Military conspiracy headed by Lafayette
331
Their designs and efforts to corrupt the troops
333
Which fails by accident
334
Lenity shown in the prosecutions ib 83 Birth of the Duke of Bordeaux
335
Universal transports in France
336
Congratulations from the European powers and promotions in Franco
338
Rupture with the Doctrinaires
339
Its defeat and failure
340
Views of the Royalists ih 89 Disturbances in the provinces Internal measures of the Government
342
Changes in the household
343
Ordonnance regarding public instruction
345
True system
391
Peculiar dangers with which the resumption of cash payments was attended
392
Strain on the money market from the immense loans on the Continent
393
Great prosperity of England in end of 1818 and spring of 1819 from extension of its currency
394
Great internal prosperity of the country
395
237
396
Disastrous contraction of the currency
398
And on prices of all commodities
399
Rapid increase of disaffection in the country
401
Meeting at Peterloo
403
Great excitement and objects of the meeting
404
Its dispersion by the military ib 28 Noble conduct of Lord Sidmouth on the occasion
406
Result of Hunts trial
407
Reflections on the impolicy of allowing such meetings
408
And on the conduct of the magistrates
409
Seditious meetings in other quarters 33 Augmentation of the Chelsea pensioners
412
Meeting of Parliament and measures of Government
414
Lord Sidmouths Acts of Parliament
415
246
416
Death of the Duke of Kent
418
Death of George III
419
Birth of Queen Victoria
420
Alarming illness of George IV
421
Ominous questions regarding the omission of Queen Carolines name in the Liturgy
422
Remarkable speech of Mr Brougham
423
Cato Street conspiracy Thistlewoods previous life ib 45 Design of the conspirators
425
Perilous position of Quiroga in the Isle of Leon
426
Execution of the conspirators
427
Disturbances in Scotland and north of England
429
Insurrection in Scotland
430
Outbreak of the insurrection and its suppression ib 52 Death and character of Mr Grattan
432
His character as a statesman and orator
433
Increase of the yeomanry force
434
The budget for 1820
435
Important subjects of debate in this session
437
Statistics on education in England and Wales by Mr Brougham ib 58 Difficulties of this subject and necessity of an assessment
439
Its difficulties and attempts at their solution ib 60 Probable mode of solving it
440
What is to be done with the educated classes ?
441
Effect of education in leading to the dispersion of mankind
442
the king accepts the constitution
447
Appointment of a committee to inquire into agricultural distress
448
Commencement of the troubles about the queen
454
Enthusiastic reception of the queen at Dover and in London
460
General transports of the people
467
Answer by Mr Peel
473
282
475
Vehement demand for a reduction of taxation
479
Aspect of Wellington Londonderry and George IV
485
Lord Wellesley appointed Viceroy of Ireland and change in the govern
491
185
502
Measures for the relief of the agricultural classes
505
Repeated defeats of Ministers in the House of Commons
515
Deliverance of the king and dissolution of the Cortes
517
Details of the measure
521
Political changes in progress from the resumption of cash payments
528
Massacre at Cadiz
530
His defects
539
His character as a statesman
545
Law regarding the press
551
Abortive conspiracy at Béfort
557
Insurrection at Colmar Marseilles and Toulon
563
Conduct of the Cortes and appointment of a new Ministry
569
Proceedings of the Cortes
575
Yellow fever at Barcelona
583
Composition of the new Cortes
589
Proceedings of the Cortes and progress of the civil war
591
his appearance and character and followers
593
Desperate assault of Cervera
594
Defeat of Misas ib 58 Defeat of Misas 59 Severe laws passed by the Cortes
595
491
598
Great extension of the civil war 596 60 Great extension of the civil war 61 Deplorable state of the Spanish finances
599
Commencement of the strife between the guard and the garrison ib 64 Departure of the royal guard from Madrid
600
Progress of the negotiations with the insurgents
601
Attack of the guards on Madrid and its defeat
602
Destruction of the royal guard
603
Defeat of the insurgents in Andalusia and Cadiz
604
Change of ministry and complete triumph of the revolutionists
605
The new ministry and provincial appointments
606
Murder of Geoiffeux ib 72 Second trial and execution of Elio
607
Civil war in the northern provinces
609
Vigorous measures of the revolutionary government
610
Capture of Castelfollit and savage proclamation of Mina
611
Continued disasters of the Royalists and flight of the regency from Urgel
612
CHAPTER XII
614
Effect of these events in France and Europe
615
Lamartines observations on the subject
616
Opposite views which prevailed in Great Britain
617
Repugnance to French intervention
618
Danger of a renewal of the family compact between France and Spain
619
Influence of the South American and Spanish bondholders
620
Immense extent of the Spanish and South American loans
621
Views of the Cabinet and Mr Canning on the subject
622
Congress of Verona agreed on by all the powers
623
Members of the Congress there
624
Description of Verona
625
Views of the different powers at the opening of the Congress
626
Brilliant assemblage of princesses and courtiers at Verona
627
Treaty for the evacuation of Piedmont and Naples th 16 Resolution of the Congress regarding the slavetrade
628
Note of England regarding South American independence
629
Instructions of M de Villèle to M de Montmorency regarding Spain
630
Mr Cannings instructions to Duke of Wellington
631
Measures adopted by the majority of the Congress on the subject
632
Views of what had occurred in this Congress
635
The warlike preparations of France continue
641
Mr Canning adopts the principle of noninterference
654
Immense sensation produced by this speech
664
Dramatic scene at his expulsion
670
Portrait of Mr Canning by M Marcellus
676
Forces and their disposition on both sides
682
Entry of the Duke dAngoulême into Madrid
688
Its provisions
694
Defeat and capture of Riego
700
Resumed negotiations at Cadiz and assault of Santa Petri
701
Deliverance of the king and dissolution of the Cortes
702
Scene at his deliverance
703
First acts of the new Government ib 92 Loud calls on Ferdinand for moderation and clemency
704
Sentence of Riego
705
Entry of the king and queen into Madrid
706
Distracted and miserable state of Spain
708
State of Portugal during this year Royalist insurrection
709
Royalist counterrevolution
710
Triumphant return of the Duke dAngoulême to Paris
711
Offer of assistance by Russia to France rejected
712
101102 Views of Mr Canning in recognising the republics of South America 713715
713
acknowledged it
716
Mr Canning did not give independence to South America but only 104 Recognition of the South American republics by Mr Canning
717
de Chateaubriands designs in regard to the South American states
719
Speech of Mr Canning at Plymouth
720
The elections of 1824 and strength of the Royalists
721
Great effect which this had on the future destinies of France
722
Meeting of the Chambers and measures announced in the royal speech
723
considerations in favour of it ib 112 Argument on the other side
724
Law for the reduction of interest of the national debt
725
285
726
Reflections on this decision Difference of the English and French funds
727
288
728
Statistics of France in this year
729
Reign of Louis XVIII draws to a close ib 120 His declining days
730
His great powers of conversation
731
His religious impressions in his last days
732
His death ib 124 Character of Louis XVII
733
His private qualities and weaknesses
734
Political inferences from the result of the Spanish revolution
735
Great merit of the French expedition into Spain in 1823
736
It had nearly established the throne of the Restoration
737
The French invasion of Spain was justifiable
738
Was the English intervention in behalf of South America justifiable ?
739
Its ultimate disastrous effects to England
740
59

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Side 717 - It would be disingenuous, indeed, not to admit that the entry of the French army into Spain was, in a certain sense, a disparagement — an affront to the pride— a blow to the feelings of England...
Side 467 - ... from the roots and the stem of the tree. Save that country, that you may continue to adorn it; save the Crown, which is in jeopardy, the aristocracy, which is shaken; save the altar, which must stagger with the blow that rends its kindred throne!
Side 717 - I have already said that, when the French army entered Spain we might, if we chose, have resisted or resented that measure by war. But were there no other means than war for restoring the balance of power? Is the balance of power a fixed and unalterable standard?
Side 717 - Spain might be rendered harmless in rival hands, — harmless as regarded us, and valueless to the possessors ? might not compensation for disparagement be obtained, and the policy of our ancestors vindicated, by means better adapted to the present time ? If France occupied Spain, was it necessary, in order to avoid the consequences of that occupation, that we should blockade Cadiz? No: I looked another way; I sought materials of compensation in another hemisphere. Contemplating Spain such as our...
Side 467 - Save the country, my lords, from the horrors of this catastrophe ; save yourselves from this peril ; rescue that country of which you are the ornaments, but in which you can flourish no longer, when severed from the people, than the blossom when cut off from the roots and the stem of the tree.
Side 398 - The Prince Regent has the greatest pleasure in being able to inform you, that the trade, commerce, and manufactures of the country are in a most flourishing condition. " The favourable change which has so rapidly taken place in the internal circumstances of the United Kingdom, affords the strongest proof of the solidity of its resources. " To cultivate and improve the advantages of our present situation will be the object of your deliberations...
Side 637 - ... opinion, that to animadvert upon the internal transactions of an independent state, unless such transactions affect the essential interests of his Majesty's subjects, is inconsistent with those principles on which his Majesty has invariably acted on all questions relating to the internal concerns of other countries ; that such animadversions, if made, must involve his Majesty in serious responsibility, if they should produce any effect ; and must irritate, if they should not...

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