History of Japanese Policies in Education Aid to Developing Countries, 1950s-1990s: The Role of the Subgovernmental Processes
During the half century from the 1950s to the year 2000, Japan emerged as a major international aid donor. In 1989 it became the largest bilateral air donor in the world. How did Japan emerge as a top education aid donor? What external and internal pressures shaped the development of aid policies? What Japanese interests were served? How has the Japanese government exercised a global leadership of education aid policies? This study addresses these questions by tracking the evolution of education aid policies as they have been revealed by subgovernments as specialized decisionmaking units within a government.
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lnternational Trends in Education Aid Thinking
JAPANS EMERGENCE AS A DONOR lN THE EARLY 1960s AND THE DEVELOPMENT
Major Developments in the 1960s
Expansion of UNESCO Cooperation
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activities agencies agriculture aid policymaking APElD Asian Associated Schools Project basic education budget Cakusei 100 nenshi cation aid Chiba Colombo Plan Cultural developing countries Development Assistance Development Assistance Committee Director Division domestic donor Economic Cooperation educa education aid policies education cooperation education policy Education Subgovernment Educational Multilateralism EDUCATlON AlD foreign student programs grant aid interactions interests international education interviews Japan japan's Economic Aid Japan's Foreign Aid Japanese aid Japanese education aid jiCA JlCA staff members JNCU JNCU's July Karachi Karachi Plan kyoryoku ln addition lnternational Affairs Bureau lnternational Development lnternational Understanding Education ministries MlTl MOE officials MOE's MOFA MOFA and JlCA MOFA's Monbusho national university professors Nihon NlER ODA Subgovernment ODA Subgovernment's OECD OECF Official Development Assistance organizations OTCA Overseas percent political primary education priority Research role Science and lnternational sector subgovernmental processes technical cooperation Tokyo UNDP UNESCO UNlCEF war reparations WCEFA World Bank yunesuko
Page ix - Official development assistance (ODA) consists of net disbursements of loans and grants made on concessional financial terms by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to promote economic development and welfare.
Page x - GRANTS to nationals of aid recipient countries receiving education or training at home or abroad, and ii) payments to consultants, advisers and similar personnel as well as teachers and administrators serving in recipient countries. TIED AID: Official GRANTS or LOANS where procurement of the goods or services involved is limited to the donor country or to a group of countries which does not include substantially all aid recipients.
Page vii - Subgovernments thus constitute a set of interest-based cleavages that divide the entire decision-making system. These cleavages are crucially reinforced by the deep formalorganization cleavages between the ministries. Interactions within subgovernments must be taken into account in analyzing the conflict patterns of nearly all policy issues, and moreover the relationships between subgovernments are the key to understanding most issues that are broader than the jurisdiction of a single ministry.34...