Hominid Adaptations and Extinctions
Looking at a period of history 22 to 2.5 million years ago, Hominid Adaptations synthesizes the information currently available on hominid palaeobiology. It examines the record of the Neogene fossil apes: their adaptive trends, their morphologies and their relationships to the environment; their evolution and in many cases their extinctions. In so doing, it will provide original insights into the evolution of our most distant and our most immediate fossil ancestors.
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African Afropithecini Afropithecus airorynch allocated Andrews Ankarapithecus apes Asian associated Australopithecus bauplan brancoi Cameron chimpanzee cingulum clade condition observed corpus cranial base cusps and cristae defined dental complex developed Dryopithecus Equatorius evolution evolutionary extant hominids facial Fleagle folivorous forest fossil record frontal bone frontal sinus genus gorilla Graecopithecus Griphopithecus habitat Heliopithecus heseloni Hominoidea homoplasies incisive canal incisive fossa incisor incisor complex incisor heteromorphy increased indicates inferior transverse infranasal interorbital Kelley Kenyapithecinae Kenyapithecus lacrimal fossa later Leakey lingual locomotion Lufengpithecus male canine mandible masticatory million years ago Miocene Miocene hominoids molar complexes molar enamel Morotopithecus morphology muscle nasal clivus neuro-orbital nyanzae orang-utan orbital overall palaeohabitat palate pattern phylogenetic Pilbeam Ponginae Pongo postcranial postorbital constriction Ppaniscus premaxilla premolar premolar and molar Proconsul Proconsulidae prognathism proto-australopithecines pygmaeus Rangwapithecus reduced region relative robust shares similar Sivapithecus species specimens suggests supraorbital torus synapomorphies transverse torus troglodytes Turkanapithecus upper face upper molar well-developed zygomatic
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