Homocysteine in Health and Disease

Front Cover
Ralph Carmel, Donald W. Jacobsen
Cambridge University Press, Jul 19, 2001 - Medical - 510 pages
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High levels of homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid derived from methionine, have recently been identified as a very important risk factor in cardiovascular disease. Homocysteine abnormalities are also thought to contribute to birth defects and dementia. There are many common genetic disorders and problems (such as vitamin deficiency) that adversely affect the metabolism of homocysteine. In this book a team of the world's experts in the field provide a clear, current, clinical analysis of the biochemistry, genetics, and epidemiology of homocysteine disorders, providing a uniquely comprehensive account of the broad range of medical, nutritional and methodological implications of homocysteine for health and disease.
 

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Contents

Historical overview and recent perspectives
1
Practical Chemistry of Homocysteine and Other Thiols
9
Biosynthesis and reactions of homocysteine thiolactone
21
Unique aspects of sulfur chemistry Homocysteine and lipid oxidation
32
Homocysteine nitric oxide and nitrosothiols
39
Section Two Biochemistry and Metabolism
47
SAdenosylmethioninedependent Methyltransferases
63
SAdenosylhomocysteine hydrolase
79
Polymorphisms of Folate and Cobalamin Metabolism
259
Folate Deficiency
271
Cobalamin Deficiency
289
Vitamin B6 Deficiency
307
Homocysteine in Renal Disease
321
Diseases and Drugs Associated with Hyperhomocysteinemia
331
Lifestyle Factors Associated with Hyperhomocysteinemia
341
Clinical Consequences in Hyperhomocysteinemia
357

Regulation of Homocysteine Metabolism
92
Microbial Modeling of human disease Homocysteine metabolism
100
Folate Metabolism
113
Cobalamindependent remethylation
135
Betainedependent remethylation
145
The Transsulfuration Pathway
153
Transport and Tissue Distribution of Homocysteine and Related SAdenosyl Compounds
163
Homocysteine and the Kidney
176
Homocysteine and the Nervous System
183
Methodologies of Testing
199
Methionine Loading
212
Cystathionine Synthase and Its Deficiency
223
Inborn Errors of Folate and Cobalamin Metabolism
244
Homocysteine and coronary artery disease
371
Homocysteine and cerebral vascular disease
384
Peripheral arterial disease
393
Venous disease
401
Homocysteine and Hemostasis
415
Cellular mechanisms of homocysteine pathogenesis in atherosclerosis
425
Homocysteine and cardiovascular physiology
441
Homocysteine and human reproduction TKAB Eskes
451
Intervention and Therapy
467
Design of clinical Trials to test the homocysteine hypothesis of vascular disease
477
What is a desirable homocysteine Level?
485
Index
491
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