How Humans Relate: A New Interpersonal Theory
In this book, John Birtchnell offers a new theory as the basis for a science of relating. While links can be made between it and classical interpersonal theory, it has many new and original features.; The theory states that the relating of humans must have evolved out of, and be in continuity with, the relating of all other animals. The fundamental relating objective of both humans and animals can most easily be defined Identifying That Basic Framework Of Motives Which Is Common To Both.; Birtchnell proposes that such a framework is best constructed around two major axes, a horizontal one concerning the degree to which we need to become involved with or separated from others, and a vertical one concerning the degree to which we choose to exercise power over others or permit others to exercise their power over us. We differ from other animals in the horizontal axis in the extent to which we have expanded our proclivity for close involvement, and on the vertical axis in the extent to which we have become prepared to utilize such forms of power as we have, or have acquired, for the benefit of others. As a consequence of our greater involvement, we are capable of being concerned about and respectful of the needs of others, and trusting of those who are prepared to utilize their power for our benefit, though we remain capable of being disrespectful and non-trusting.; The four objectives derived from the proposed framework are called closeness, distance, upperness and lowerness, and a large part of the book is devoted to describing their characteristics. The book also explores the use of the framework as a means of classifying personality disorders and mental illness.; This book shoud be of interest to professionals and students interested in human relationsships, including psychiatrists, clinical and social psychologists, and psychotherapists.
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The Two Axes of Relating
Further Development of the Two Axes
The first interpersonal circle
Maturational Processes within the Two Axes
A graphical representation of scores
l0 The Interpersonal Circle
Learys interpersonal circle
Early modifications of the Leary circle
Later modifications of the Leary circle
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able adoration adult American Psychiatric Association animals attachment theory attain attitude avoid axes become behavior believe Birtchnell called capable cathexis Chapter characteristics child close involvement close position close relationships component concerned considered Corresponds in Place dependent depression described developed distant person emotion experience fear feel form of distance form of relating forms of closeness forms of uppemess Freud her/himself her/his horizontal axis humans identity important imposed individual infant insecurely upper intense interpersonal circle interpersonal octagon introjective Leary linked lowemess lower close lower distant lower neutral lower person maintained marital mother narcissistic negative forms neutral close object observed octants one's oneself other's particular partners patient physical psychoanalysts psychotherapy punishment relatedness respect response romantic love s/he schizophrenic seeking sense separate sexual arousal sexual closeness social society someone sometimes species subcortex superego term theory therapist things upper distant upper neutral upper person vertical axis