How the Brain Learns

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Corwin Press, Aug 8, 2011 - Education - 321 pages
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Give your brain knowledge a boost

David A. Sousa continues his successful tradition of translating current research findings into effective classroom strategies and activities in this new version of his bestselling text. The fourth edition integrates the most current developments in neuroscience, education, and psychology to inform your instruction and enhance your students’ learning. Included are:



  • New information on memory systems
  • Findings on how technology affects the brain
  • Information on brain organization and learning, and hemispheric specialization
  • Evidence that supports the value of the arts in improving cognitive processing and creativity
  • More than 150 new or updated references and an expanded index

 

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Contents

Preface to the Fourth Edition
Acknowledgments
About the Author
Introduction
Types of Brain Imaging
Implications for Teaching
Some Important Findings
Why this Book can Help Improve Teaching and Learning
Whats Coming Up?
Chapter 5 Brain Organization and Learning
Brain Lateralization
What Causes Specialization?
Specialization does not Mean Exclusivity
The Gender Connection
Schools and Brain Organization
Spoken Language Specialization

Chapter Contents
Who Should Use this Book?
Try it YourselfDo Action Research
Whats Coming Up?
Chapter 1 Basic Brain Facts
Some Exterior Parts of the Brain
Motor Cortex and Somatosensory Cortex
Cerebrum
Brain Cells
Brain Fuel
Neuron Development in Children
Windows of Opportunity
The Brain as a Novelty Seeker
Whats Coming Up?
Chapter 2 How the Brain Processes Information
The Information Processing Model
Limitations of the Model
Inadequacy of the Computer Model
The Senses
ShortTerm Memory
LongTerm Storage
The Cognitive Belief System
Learning Profiles Styles
Whats Coming Up?
Chapter 3 Memory Retention and Learning
How Memory Forms
The Temporary Stimulus
Stages and Types of Memory
Emotional Memory
Learning and Retention
Rehearsal
Retention During a Learning Episode
Implications for Teaching
Learning Motor Skills
Does Practice Make Perfect?
Daily Biological Rhythms Affect Teaching and Learning
The Importance of Sleep in Learning and Memory
Intelligence and Retrieval
Retrieval
Chunking
Forgetting
Whats Coming Up?
Chapter 4 The Power of Transfer
What is Transfer?
Types of Transfer
Transfer of Learning
Teaching for Transfer
Factors Affecting Transfer
Teaching Methods
Transfer and Constructivism
Technology and Transfer
Learning Spoken Language
Learning a Second Language
Learning to Read
Neural Systems Involved in Reading
Skills Involved in Reading
Problems in Learning to Read
Implications for Teaching Reading
Chapter 6 The Brain and the Arts
Why Teach the Arts?
The Arts and the Young Brain
The Arts and Creativity
The Sciences Need the Arts
Impact of the Arts on Student Learning and Behavior
Music
Effects of Listening to Music versus Creating Instrumental Music
How the Brain Listens to Music
The Benefits of Listening to Music
Creating Music
Benefits of Creating Music
Creating Music Benefits Memory
Music and Reading
Student Attitudes toward Music in the Schools
Research on Visual Arts and Learning
Movement
Implications for Schools
Whats Coming Up?
Chapter 7 Thinking Skills and Learning
Types of Thinking
Thinking and Emotion
Are We Teaching Thinking Skills?
Modeling Thinking Skills in the Classroom
Revisiting Blooms Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain
The Models Structure and Revision
Important Characteristics of the Revised Model
Cognitive and Emotional Thinking
The Taxonomy and the Dimensions of Thinking
The Critical Difference between Complexity and Difficulty
Curriculum Changes to Accommodate the Taxonomy
Whats Coming Up?
Chapter 8 Putting it all Together
Daily Planning
TwentyOne Questions to ask During Lesson Planning
Unit Planning
Maintaining Skills for the Future
Conclusion
Resources
Glossary
References
Index
Copyright

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About the author (2011)

Dr. David A. Sousa is an international consultant in educational neuroscience and author of 15 books that suggest ways that educators and parents can translate current brain research into strategies for improving learning. A member of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, he has conducted workshops in hundreds of school districts on brain research, instructional skills, and science education at the Pre-K to 12 and university levels. Dr. Sousa has a bachelor's degree in chemistry from Bridgewater State University, a Master of Arts in Teaching degree in science from Harvard University, and a doctorate from Rutgers University. His teaching experiene covers all levels. He has taught senior high school sciences, served as a K - 12 director of science, a supervisor of instruction, and a district superintendent in New Jersey schools. He has been an adjunct professor of education at Seton Hall University and a visiting lecturer at Rutgers University.

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