How the Brain Learns

Front Cover
Corwin Press, Aug 8, 2011 - Education - 321 pages

One major development since the third edition of this text is the birth of a new academic discipline. Called educational neuroscience or mind, brain, and education science, this field explores how research findings from neuroscience, education, and psychology can inform our understandings about teaching and learning, and whether they have implications for educational practice. This new edition includes updated information on memory systems, especially the changes in working memory capacity; new research findings on how the explosion of technology may be affecting the brain; new information on brain organization and learning, and revised sections on hemispheric specialization;Šnew research on how learning the arts enhances cognitive processing and creativity; an expanded Resources section that includes more Internet sites selected for their reliable information on the brain; and more than 150 new orŠupdated references, most of which are primary sources for those who wish to explore the actual research studies. This book opens the door to educational neuroscience in the hopes that educators will experience the joy of seeing more students reach their full potential.


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Preface to the Fourth Edition
About the Author
Types of Brain Imaging
Implications for Teaching
Some Important Findings
Why this Book can Help Improve Teaching and Learning
Whats Coming Up?
Chapter 5 Brain Organization and Learning
Brain Lateralization
What Causes Specialization?
Specialization does not Mean Exclusivity
The Gender Connection
Schools and Brain Organization
Spoken Language Specialization

Chapter Contents
Who Should Use this Book?
Try it YourselfDo Action Research
Whats Coming Up?
Chapter 1 Basic Brain Facts
Some Exterior Parts of the Brain
Motor Cortex and Somatosensory Cortex
Brain Cells
Brain Fuel
Neuron Development in Children
Windows of Opportunity
The Brain as a Novelty Seeker
Whats Coming Up?
Chapter 2 How the Brain Processes Information
The Information Processing Model
Limitations of the Model
Inadequacy of the Computer Model
The Senses
ShortTerm Memory
LongTerm Storage
The Cognitive Belief System
Learning Profiles Styles
Whats Coming Up?
Chapter 3 Memory Retention and Learning
How Memory Forms
The Temporary Stimulus
Stages and Types of Memory
Emotional Memory
Learning and Retention
Retention During a Learning Episode
Implications for Teaching
Learning Motor Skills
Does Practice Make Perfect?
Daily Biological Rhythms Affect Teaching and Learning
The Importance of Sleep in Learning and Memory
Intelligence and Retrieval
Whats Coming Up?
Chapter 4 The Power of Transfer
What is Transfer?
Types of Transfer
Transfer of Learning
Teaching for Transfer
Factors Affecting Transfer
Teaching Methods
Transfer and Constructivism
Technology and Transfer
Learning Spoken Language
Learning a Second Language
Learning to Read
Neural Systems Involved in Reading
Skills Involved in Reading
Problems in Learning to Read
Implications for Teaching Reading
Chapter 6 The Brain and the Arts
Why Teach the Arts?
The Arts and the Young Brain
The Arts and Creativity
The Sciences Need the Arts
Impact of the Arts on Student Learning and Behavior
Effects of Listening to Music versus Creating Instrumental Music
How the Brain Listens to Music
The Benefits of Listening to Music
Creating Music
Benefits of Creating Music
Creating Music Benefits Memory
Music and Reading
Student Attitudes toward Music in the Schools
Research on Visual Arts and Learning
Implications for Schools
Whats Coming Up?
Chapter 7 Thinking Skills and Learning
Types of Thinking
Thinking and Emotion
Are We Teaching Thinking Skills?
Modeling Thinking Skills in the Classroom
Revisiting Blooms Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain
The Models Structure and Revision
Important Characteristics of the Revised Model
Cognitive and Emotional Thinking
The Taxonomy and the Dimensions of Thinking
The Critical Difference between Complexity and Difficulty
Curriculum Changes to Accommodate the Taxonomy
Whats Coming Up?
Chapter 8 Putting it all Together
Daily Planning
TwentyOne Questions to ask During Lesson Planning
Unit Planning
Maintaining Skills for the Future

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About the author (2011)

Dr. David A. Sousa is an international consultant in educational neuroscience and author of 15 books that suggest ways that educators and parents can translate current brain research into strategies for improving learning. A member of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, he has conducted workshops in hundreds of school districts on brain research, instructional skills, and science education at the Pre-K to 12 and university levels. Dr. Sousa has a bachelor's degree in chemistry from Bridgewater State University, a Master of Arts in Teaching degree in science from Harvard University, and a doctorate from Rutgers University. His teaching experiene covers all levels. He has taught senior high school sciences, served as a K - 12 director of science, a supervisor of instruction, and a district superintendent in New Jersey schools. He has been an adjunct professor of education at Seton Hall University and a visiting lecturer at Rutgers University.

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