How the ocean works: an introduction to oceanography
The world's oceans account for roughly 71 percent of the planet's surface and 99 percent of its livable volume. Any study of this huge habitat requires a solid foundation in the principles that underlie marine biology and physical and chemical oceanography, yet until now undergraduate textbooks have largely presented compilations of facts rather than explanations of principles.How the Ocean Worksfills this gap, providing a concise and accessible college-level introduction to marine science that is also ideal for general readers. How are winds and currents driven? What is the dilemma of the two-layered ocean? Mark Denny explains key concepts like these in rich and fascinating detail. He explores early scientific knowledge of oceans, photosynthesis, trophic interactions and energy flow, and the impacts of human activities on marine and atmospheric systems. Focusing each chapter on a major topic and carefully explaining the principles and theory involved, Denny gives readers the conceptual building blocks needed to develop a coherent picture of the living ocean.How the Ocean Worksis an indispensable resource that teaches readers how to think about the ocean--its biology, mechanics, and conservation. Provides a concise, up-to-date introduction to marine science Develops the conceptual basis needed to understand how the ocean works Explains fundamental principles and theory Includes color illustrations and informative diagrams Serves as a college textbook and a reference for general readers
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A1 Calculating distances on a circle
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absorbed ammonia animals Antarctic Atlantic atmosphere bacteria ball bicarbonate biological biological pump carbon dioxide centrifugal force centripetal chapter ciliates circle cold concentration copepods Coriolis acceleration Current cyanobacteria decreases deep deﬁned density depth diatoms difﬁcult dinoflagellates dissolved earth earth’s surface effect equator equatorial example Ferrel cells ﬁgure ﬁnally ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁsh ﬁsheries ﬁshing ﬁxation ﬁxed flow gravity gyres Hadley cells heat herbivores heterotrophic HNLC HNLC areas hydrogen increase ions iron kilograms kilometers latitude layer light marine measure mixing molecules motion move Niﬁo nitrate nitrogen North northern hemisphere nutrients ocean interior ocean’s surface organisms oxygen Paciﬁc photosynthesis phytoplankton plankton polar poles population potential energy predators pressure primary production result salinity seafloor seawater shown in ﬁgure sink South southern speciﬁc speed square meter sufﬁcient surface water temperature thermocline thermohaline circulation tion trade winds trophic level two-layered ocean typically upwelling veer velocity warm whales