How the Quality of Institutions Affects Technological Deepening in Developing Countries
World Bank, Development Research Group, Regulation and Competition Policy, 2001 - Associations, institutions, etc - 21 pages
The lower the risk of expropriation and the greater the rule of law (that is, the greater the security of property and contract rights), the greater the research and development spending in developing countries and the greater the likelihood that foreign direct investment will increase; two routes to technological deepening.
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affect R&D expenditures Audretsch Black Market Premium Capita GDP capita income Claims on Private CM CM coefficients on government column control variables correlated with R&D Dahlman defense expenditures dependent variable deposit money banks developing countries economic and institutional economic variables expenditures and defense expenditures on R&D extreme bound foreign direct investment government expenditures human capital ICRG incoming FDI increase as institutional independent variables institutional quality improves institutional variables International Monetary Fund Keefer and Knack Knack and Keefer Levine and Renelt low and middle-income low-income countries measures of institutional measures of openness middle-income countries model specifications multicollinearity negatively correlated number of countries number of observations Openness to Trade point estimate Policy Research positively correlated primary enrollment rate Private Sector Research Working Paper risk of expropriation robustly correlated Rule of Law significantly correlated SIPRI stronger institutions studies e.g. suggests Tabada tertiary enrollment rate UNESCO variable of interest World Bank 1995