How to Read the Bible: A Guide to Scripture, Then and Now

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Simon and Schuster, Oct 21, 2008 - Religion - 848 pages
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Scholars from different fields have joined forces to reexamine every aspect of the Hebrew Bible. Their research, carried out in universities and seminaries in Europe and America, has revolutionized our understanding of almost every chapter and verse. But have they killed the Bible in the process?

In How to Read the Bible, Harvard professor James Kugel leads the reader chapter by chapter through the "quiet revolution" of recent biblical scholarship, showing time and again how radically the interpretations of today's researchers differ from what people have always thought. The story of Adam and Eve, it turns out, was not originally about the "Fall of Man," but about the move from a primitive, hunter-gatherer society to a settled, agricultural one. As for the stories of Cain and Abel, Abraham and Sarah, and Jacob and Esau, these narratives were not, at their origin, about individual people at all but, rather, explanations of some feature of Israelite society as it existed centuries after these figures were said to have lived. Dinah was never raped -- her story was created by an editor to solve a certain problem in Genesis. In the earliest version of the Exodus story, Moses probably did not divide the Red Sea in half; instead, the Egyptians perished in a storm at sea. Whatever the original Ten Commandments might have been, scholars are quite sure they were different from the ones we have today. What's more, the people long supposed to have written various books of the Bible were not, in the current consensus, their real authors: David did not write the Psalms, Solomon did not write Proverbs or Ecclesiastes; indeed, there is scarcely a book in the Bible that is not the product of different, anonymous authors and editors working in different periods.

Such findings pose a serious problem for adherents of traditional, Bible-based faiths. Hiding from the discoveries of modern scholars seems dishonest, but accepting them means undermining much of the Bible's reliability and authority as the word of God. What to do? In his search for a solution, Kugel leads the reader back to a group of ancient biblical interpreters who flourished at the end of the biblical period. Far from nave, these interpreters consciously set out to depart from the original meaning of the Bible's various stories, laws, and prophecies -- and they, Kugel argues, hold the key to solving the dilemma of reading the Bible today.

How to Read the Bible is, quite simply, the best, most original book about the Bible in decades. It offers an unflinching, insider's look at the work of today's scholars, together with a sustained consideration of what the Bible was for most of its history -- before the rise of modern scholarship. Readable, clear, often funny but deeply serious in its purpose, this is a book for Christians and Jews, believers and secularists alike. It offers nothing less than a whole new way of thinking about sacred Scripture.
 

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How to Read the Bible

User Review  - lcovello - Overstock.com

The book is excellent. Although scholarly it is written in language that an average reader can understand. The extensive endnotes are supplemented by a web site created by the author. Read full review

How to read the Bible: a guide to Scripture, then and now

User Review  - Not Available - Book Verdict

Kugel (Bible studies, Bar-Ilan Univ., Israel;The God of Old: Inside the Lost World of the Bible ) identifies himself as a legally observant Orthodox Jew who nevertheless teaches modern biblical ... Read full review

Contents

The Creation of the Worldand of Adam and Eve
47
Cain and Abel
58
The Great Flood
69
The Tower of Babel
81
The Call of Abraham
89
Two Models of God and the God of Old
107
The Trials of Abraham
119
Jacob and Esau
133
Judges and Chiefs
386
The Other Gods of Canaan
417
Samuel and Saul
436
The Psalms of David
458
David the King
474
Solomons Wisdom
493
North and South
519
The Book of Isaiahs
538

Jacob and the Angel
152
Dinah
163
Joseph and His Brothers
176
Moses in Egypt
198
The Exodus
217
A Covenant with God
233
The Ten Commandments
250
A Religion of Laws
260
Worship on the Road
280
P and D
296
On the Way to Canaan
317
Moses Last Words
335
Joshua and the Conquest of Canaan
364
Jeremiah
569
Ezekiel
598
Twelve Minor Prophets
617
Job and Postexilic Wisdom
635
Daniel the Interpreter
644
After Such Knowledge
662
Picture Credits
691
A Note to the Reader
692
Notes
693
Subject Index
773
Verses Cited
809
Copyright

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About the author (2008)

James L. Kugel is Starr Professor of Hebrew Literature at Harvard University, and a regular visiting Professor of Biblical Studies at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. He is the author of a number of books of biblical scholarship, including How to Read the Bible (2007), for which he won the National Jewish Book Award for best book, The Great Poems of the Bible (1999), and The Bible As It Was (1997).In 2001, Kugel was awarded the prestigious Grawemeyer Prize in Religion. He lives in Jerusalem, Israel, and in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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