Human Exposure Assessment, Issue 214
World Health Organization, Jan 1, 2000 - Medical - 375 pages
This book offers an up-to-date guide to the concepts, procedures, statistical methods and models used to assess human exposure to environmental chemicals. Noting that exposure assessment is a comparatively new discipline of the environmental sciences, the book aims to encourage its use as a powerful tool for measuring actual levels of exposure and determining whether interventions are needed to protect public health. With this goal in mind, the book gives researchers expert advice on the design and conduct of studies, the interpretation of findings, and the best methods for ensuring the reliability and reproducibility of results. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the ways in which well-designed exposure assessments can enhance the practical value of findings from traditional epidemiological and toxicological investigations.
The book has twelve chapters. The first six cover conceptual and methodological issues. Chapter one introduces basic concepts used in exposure assessment, and describes direct and indirect methods of measuring or estimating actual exposure and determining whether intervention is required. The uses of human exposure data are covered in chapter two, which explains how studies of human exposure can reduce the uncertainty of estimates used in epidemiology, risk assessment and risk management. Chapter three considers several generic study designs and approaches, and compares their advantages and limitations. Chapter four, on statistical methods, discusses selective applications of descriptive and inferential statistics, using data on lead exposure as an example. Subsequent chapters review methods for the collection and application of time-use data and introduce the principles, methods and data requirements of exposure modeling.
Against this background, chapters in the second half of the book offer practical advice on the design and conduct of studies aimed at assessing exposure to chemicals in different environmental media. Separate chapters describe sampling methods used to analyze chemical concentrations in air, water, and food, and in soil and settled dust. Environmental allergens that can contribute to disease or alter susceptibility are considered in chapter nine, which concentrates on methods for measuring particles from house dust mites and their feces, allergens from pets and cockroaches, and allergens or toxins from fungi, bacteria and pollen. Subsequent chapters describe the use of biological markers in exposure assessment, and discuss issues surrounding the quality assurance of exposure studies and results. The final chapter presents brief summaries and examples of exposure studies in order to illustrate different study designs for different objectives, target pollutants, and populations. Studies that show how exposure assessment supports epidemiology and risk management, particularly in developing countries, are also included.
What people are saying - Write a review
We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.
USES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE INFORMATION
STRATEGIES AND DESIGN FOR EXPOSURE
12 other sections not shown
activity patterns air pollution air sampling airborne allergens ambient analysis analytical approaches average bacteria benzene bioaerosols biological markers biomarkers cadmium carbon monoxide Chapter chemical compounds contaminants dermal determine diary dietary distribution dose dust samples endotoxin Environ Health Environmental Health epidemiology estimates evaluation example exposición exposure assessment exposure models exposure studies factors filter fungal fungi health effects homes house dust mites human exposure assessment impactors important individuals ingestion inhalation intake International IPCS l'exposition laboratory lead concentration litre/min microenvironments mite allergens nitrogen dioxide normal distribution parameters participants particles pathways personal exposure Personal monitoring pesticides pollen potential procedures programme questionnaire risk assessment sample collection sampler sampling methods Sampling rate settled dust soil sources specific standard statistical study design surface survey Table time—activity data toxic ug/litre ug/m urine validation variability VOCs World Health Organization Yes Yes