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abuses according accused activities Administration alleged Americas Watch representative ANPDH areas armed Atlantic Coast attack Baltodano Borge cellblocks cells charges Chipote Chontales civilians combatants conflict contra forces contras convicted cooperative courts CPDH December defendants detainees DGSE facility due process El Nispero emergency estimate forces freedom of expression Gonzalez government of Nicaragua habeas corpus held Hernandez Trigueros Honduras human rights ICRC inmates interrogation interviewed investigation Jinotega Juigalpa kidnapped killed KISAN laws of war legitimate Managua March 1986 report Matagalpa military Ministry Miskitos mistreatment months National Guardsmen Nicara Nicaraguan government Nispero November Nueva Guinea number of persons offenses penitentiary system political prisoners pre-trial detention Prensa PRODEMCA prosecution Puerto Cabezas raped Reagan refugees released rights in Nicaragua Rio Coco Sandinista security-related sentenced Tipitapa told Americas Watch TPA's UNHCR United UNO-CDH village violations visits Washington Post women Zelaya Zona Franca
Page 165 - ... that general principles of humanitarian law include a particular prohibition, accepted by States, and extending to activities which occur in the context of armed conflicts, whether international in character or not. By virtue of such general principles, the United States is bound to refrain from encouragement of persons or groups engaged in the conflict in Nicaragua to commit violations of Article 3 which is common to all four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949.
Page 165 - At the same time, the question whether the United States Government was, or must have been, aware at the relevant time that allegations of breaches of humanitarian law were being made against the contras is relevant to an assessment of the lawfulness of the action of the United States.
Page 165 - CIA that the purpose of the manual was to , ,moderate" such behaviour. The publication and dissemination of a manual in fact containing the advice quoted above must therefore be regarded as an encouragement, which was likely to be effective, to commit acts contrary to general principles of international humanitarian law reflected in treaties.
Page 157 - The Honorable Gus Yatron Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations Committee on Foreign Affairs House of Representatives...
Page 29 - Sandinistas' strategy of population control designed to keep the resistance away from its supporters. To that end, most of these cooperatives are located in conflictive or potentially conflictive areas. The inhabitants of the cooperatives are armed and receive regular military training. Unfortunately, due to the intermingling of civilian and military functions, there are sometimes civilian casualties.
Page 78 - September the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) of the Organization of American States together with the Colombian Government and victims...
Page 165 - ... responsible directly in connection with the activities of the contras. The lawfulness or otherwise of such acts of the United States is a question different from the violations of humanitarian law of which the contras may or may not have been guilty. It is for this reason that the Court does not have to determine whether the violations of humanitarian law attributed to the contras were in fact committed by them.
Page 2 - ILO; the Inter-American Human Rights Commission of the Organization of American States; and national monitoring bodies and appropriate private parties.
Page 39 - Galvan then struck him in the back of the head with the butt of his gun or rifle.
Page 131 - Coast and established the right of its inhabitants "to preserve and develop their cultural identity within the framework of national unity, to choose their own forms of social organization, and to administer local affairs in conformity with their traditions.