Human blood analysis

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Kamla-Raj Enterprises, 2007 - Medical - 304 pages
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Blood - a biological material is the most common evidence found in all types of forensic investigations. There are two major areas of investigation: Testing for biological evidence of kinship in civil cases; and characterization of blood stains in criminal cases. Blood groups typing is still the most commonly using immunological method employed by forensic serologists for the individualization of blood. Certain enzymes and blood proteins exist in multiple genetically different forms. In case of enzymes, these forms are known as Isoenzymes . The discovery of HLA polymorphism not only involves the variable alleles in individual loci but also the haplotypes of neighboring lined loci which increases the discrimination potential for individualization and association of some HLA antigens with particular ethnic groups thereby making them important from the forensic point of view. The molecular biology has provided a more reliable techniques of DNA fingerprinting which has revolutionized the forensic analysis of blood evidence in crime investigation and today it is possible to provide valuable information in cases where scare or /and degraded amount of crime scene material could have been a limiting factor. Population studies and generation of DNA databases and quality systems are further advancements in the forensic investigation of blood evidence. The blood analysis proves useful for the forensic serologist in establishing the reliability of the results in any court of law.

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