Human blood analysis
Blood - a biological material is the most common evidence found in all types of forensic investigations. There are two major areas of investigation: Testing for biological evidence of kinship in civil cases; and characterization of blood stains in criminal cases. Blood groups typing is still the most commonly using immunological method employed by forensic serologists for the individualization of blood. Certain enzymes and blood proteins exist in multiple genetically different forms. In case of enzymes, these forms are known as Isoenzymes . The discovery of HLA polymorphism not only involves the variable alleles in individual loci but also the haplotypes of neighboring lined loci which increases the discrimination potential for individualization and association of some HLA antigens with particular ethnic groups thereby making them important from the forensic point of view. The molecular biology has provided a more reliable techniques of DNA fingerprinting which has revolutionized the forensic analysis of blood evidence in crime investigation and today it is possible to provide valuable information in cases where scare or /and degraded amount of crime scene material could have been a limiting factor. Population studies and generation of DNA databases and quality systems are further advancements in the forensic investigation of blood evidence. The blood analysis proves useful for the forensic serologist in establishing the reliability of the results in any court of law.
What people are saying - Write a review
We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.
U Shankarkumar HLA and Forensic Science
K P S Kushwaha and S M S Chahal Forensic Status of 20 Blood
adenylate kinase Africans allele frequencies amplification analysis analyzed Asia Asian autosomal Bhasin and Walter biological blood group blood group system Centrifuge chromosome crime database Delhi detected disease distribution DNA fingerprinting DNA profiling DNA sequence electrophoresis erythrocytes Europeans evidence Forensic Genetics Forensic Sci Forensic Science fragments gene genetic markers genome genotyping haemoglobin haplotypes HB*E high frequency Himalayan region HLA antigens HLA Class HLA system human identification Incubate India individual investigations locus lymphocytes match membrane method microsatellites mitochondrial DNA molecular molecules Mongoloid Mourant mtDNA multiplex mutation Nature Lond nucleotide observed pattern PCR products phenotypes plate polymerase polymerase chain reaction polymorphism population groups primers probes pseudogene reaction red cell reported restriction enzyme RFLP RH*CDe sample scheduled tribes serum protein short tandem repeat solution specific stains STR loci studies technique tissue transferrin tube variants VNTR Walter and Danker-Hopfe