Humans in Outer Space - Interdisciplinary Odysseys

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Luca Codignola-Bo, Kai-Uwe Schrogl
Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 18, 2009 - Technology & Engineering - 246 pages
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Humans and space When faced with the issue of space exploration, one generally has an idea of the ?elds of study and disciplines that are involved: technology, physics and chemistry, robotics, astronomy and planetary science, space biology and medicine, disciplines which are usually referred to as the ?sciences?. In recent discussions, the human element of space exploration has attracted more and more the interest of the space sciences. As a consequence, adjacent disciplines have gained in relevance in space exploration and space research, in times when human space ?ights are almost part of everyday life. These disciplines include psychology and sociology, but also history, philosophy, anthropology, cultural studies, political sciences and law. The cont- bution of knowledge in these ?elds plays an important role in achieving the next generation of space exploration, where humans will resume exploring the Moon and, eventually, Mars,and wherespacetourism isbeginningtobedeveloped. With regard to technology, one might soon be prepared for this. Much less is this the case with space exploration by humans, rather than by robots. Robotic explorations to other planets across the solar system have developed in the past 50 years, since the beginning of the ?space age? with the presence of humans in nearby space and the landing on the Moon. Space exploration is now not only focused on technological achievements,asitsdevelopmentalsohassocial,culturalandeconomicimpacts. This makes human space exploration a topic to address in a cross-disciplinary manner.
 

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Contents

11 Summary
3
12 Microorganisms and extraterrestrial travel
6
learning from the past?
14
the ideological issue
16
the biological issue
17
134 Has history prepared us for contact?
19
14 Are we alone? Searching for life in the universe and its creation
22
143 Searches for life in the solar system
24
42 With the eyes of an astronaut
124
422 The view from above
125
423 Where do we go next?
126
43 Human spaceflight technology development and innovation
128
433 Reality
129
435 What space has to offer
130
436 Conclusions
132
44 Humanmachine cooperation in space environments
135

144 Extrasolar planets
26
145 Confinement to the solar system
28
146 Communication with other civilizations
30
147 Summary
33
15 What s the story mother? Some thoughts on Science Fiction Film and Space Travel
35
152 Historical developments
36
153 Recent examples
40
list of evaluated film examples
41
next generation visions for the next 50 years in space
44
162 Aiming ahead
45
164 Conclusions
51
21 Summary
57
some rules of engagement
59
222 Regulating the Ocean Sea
60
223 The universal human community
62
224 The world divided
64
225 Hugo Grotius and the protestant response
65
226 The Papal world order in secular garb
66
227 Conclusion
67
Lucy in the sky
69
233 Fetal space
70
234 The universe within
72
235 Hunting and gathering genes
73
236 Elementary structures
75
237 Mappings
76
238 Out of Africa out of Earth
77
239 Human evolution
78
2310 The phenomenology of space
79
2311 Conclusion
80
24 Why we had better drop analogies when discussing the role of humans in space
82
243 Man as attendant at a staging point in space
86
246 Modern analogies for the role of humans in space
87
247 How is the role of humans affected by the costrisk aspect of space flight?
88
31 Summary
93
how we talk and write about space
94
a case study
95
323 Conclusions
104
of collaborative space exploration
107
333 Benefits of international cooperation
114
334 Metaprinciples for space exploration
115
336 Conclusions
117
41 Summary
121
442 Humanmachine cooperation
137
two case studies
138
444 Findings and conclusions
145
45 Space law in the age of the International Space Station
148
453 The novelty of the International Space Station
151
454 Space law and the International Space Station
153
455 What comes next?
157
51 Summary
165
52 Humans more than the better robots for exploration?
167
523 Real exploration
169
524 Conclusion
170
53 Humans leaving the Earth a philosophers view
171
54 Human spaceflight as a matter of culture and national vision
175
543 The transutilitarian perspective
176
544 Arguments at national level
178
545 Remaining ethical questions
179
546 Conclusion
180
55 The need of a legal framework for space exploration
182
552 The term exploration in the Corpus Iuris Spatialis
183
553 The nonappropriation principle
185
554 Protection of the environment
186
555 The use of nuclear power sources
189
556 International cooperation
190
557 Some trends in the evolution of the law
192
61 Summary
199
62 Mars as a place to live? Past present and future
202
622 Past Mars
204
623 Present Mars
205
624 Future Mars
208
63 Philosophical and religious implications of extraterrestrial intelligent life
210
632 Philosophical issues
211
633 Religious issues
213
634 How should we manage such a discovery?
216
Managing ET s technology
217
64 ET culture
220
642 Galaxies of space discourse
221
643 Modeling an ET diplomacy
222
644 The ET effect upon the social
224
THE VIENNA VISION ON HUMANS IN OUTER SPACE
227
About the authors
234
Acknowledgements
246
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