## Inductive Logic Programming: 14th International Conference, ILP 2004, Porto, Portugal, September 6-8, 2004, ProceedingsRui Camacho, Ross King, Ashwin Srinivasan “How often we recall, with regret”, wrote Mark Twain about editors, “that Napoleon once shot at a magazine editor and missed him and killed a publisher. But we remember with charity, that his intentions were good. ” Fortunately, we live in more forgiving times, and are openly able to express our pleasure at being the editors of this volume containing the papers selected for presentation at the 14th International Conference on Inductive Logic Programming. ILP 2004 was held in Porto from the 6th to the 8th of September, under the auspices of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computing of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP), and the Laboratī orio de Inteligˆ encia Arti?cial e Ciˆ encias da Computaļ c˜ ao (LIACC). This annual me- ing of ILP practitioners and curious outsiders is intended to act as the premier forum for presenting the most recent and exciting work in the ?eld. Six invited talks—three from ?elds outside ILP, but nevertheless highly relevant to it— and 20 full presentations formed the nucleus of the conference. It is the full-length papersofthese20presentationsthatcomprisethebulkofthisvolume. Asisnow common with the ILP conference, presentations made to a “Work-in-Progress” track will, hopefully, be available elsewhere. We gratefully acknowledge the continued support of Kluwer Academic P- lishers for the “Best Student Paper” award on behalf of the Machine Lea- ing journal; and Springer-Verlag for continuing to publish the proceedings of these conferences. |

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### Contents

Invited Papers | 1 |

BottomUp ILP Using Large Reﬁnement Steps | 26 |

On the Eﬀect of Caching in Recursive Theory Learning | 44 |

Eﬃciently Scaling FOIL | 63 |

Learning an Approximation | 80 |

Learning Ensembles of FirstOrder Clauses | 97 |

Automatic Induction of FirstOrder Logic Descriptors Type Domains | 116 |

On Avoiding Redundancy in Inductive Logic Programming | 132 |

Learning Goal Hierarchies from Structured Observations | 198 |

Eﬃcient Evaluation of Candidate Hypotheses in ALlog | 216 |

An Eﬃcient Algorithm for Reducing Clauses | 234 |

Improving Rule Evaluation Using Multitask Learning | 252 |

Learning Logic Programs with Annotated Disjunctions | 270 |

A Simulated Annealing Framework for ILP | 288 |

Modelling Inhibition in Metabolic Pathways | 305 |

First Order Random Forests with Complex Aggregates | 323 |

Generalization Algorithms for SecondOrder Terms | 147 |

Circumscription Policies for Induction | 164 |

Logical Markov Decision Programs | 180 |

A Monte Carlo Study of Randomised Restarted Search in ILP | 341 |

Addendum | 359 |

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### Common terms and phrases

abduction abstract accuracy aggregate conditions AL-log AL-QuIn Aleph approach arity Artiﬁcial Intelligence atoms background knowledge caching candidate circumscriptive induction classiﬁed clause evaluation complete Computer concept constraints coverage database Datalog dataset decision tree deﬁned Deﬁnition descriptive induction diﬀerent disjunctive domain eﬀect eﬃcient experiments ﬁnd ﬁnite ﬁrst ﬁrst-order FOIL-D function graph GSAT heuristic Horn clauses hypothesis ILP systems implementation Inductive Logic Programming Jivaro L-terms language LNAI LOMDP LPADs Machine Learning macro-operators method Muggleton mutagenesis negative examples neural network node number of clauses observations parameters performance POSCURR positive examples predicates problem procedure Progol protein pruning query random forests recursive theory reduce redundant literals reﬁned reﬁnement operator reinforcement learning relational relational data mining representation restarted rules satisﬁed score search space Section selection simulated annealing solution speciﬁc Springer-Verlag Srinivasan strategy subset substitution suﬃcient Table task Theorem theory training set tree tuples values variables