Identification And Suppression of Multiple Reflections in Seismic Prospecting
Evgeniĭ Alekseevich Kozlov
VSP, 1988 - Science - 241 pages
This monograph is concerned with the three main aspects of dealing with multiple reflections in seismic prospecting and aims to substantiate a set of new techniques for their more effective suppression. To increase the accuracy of the Earth's physical parameter estimates (1-D, 2-D and 3-D cases) earlier time intervals for seismic records are used in combination with the subtraction of predicted materials from target intervals in the course of seismic data inversion. The automated identification of multiple events on seismic records in the course of data interpretation is discussed with the aim of improving the reliability with which structural and stratigraphic traps can be located. In order to increase the signal to noise ratio modern techniques for the suppression of multiples (on either 2-D or 3-D records) based on the difference between propagation velocities of multiple and primary waves in the course of data processing are considered. The book provides a description of general concepts then focuses on the methodology of data processing and interpretation; including theory, computational algorithms, stability and noise-immunity considerations. Special attention is given to the practical implementation of the techniques proposed. Finally, using a large amount of both model and real data examples, the book illustrates how to improve the resultant seismic data by the use of developed multiple identification and suppression techniques in various geologic environments.
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Suppression of multiples as a part of seismic inversion
Prediction of multiple event parameters and identification
Subtraction of recorded multiples
Implementation of prediction identification and suppression
additive noise algorithm amplitude applied approximation assumed auto-adaptation auto-correlation calculated Claerbout CMP gathers CMP stacking coherent events coherent noise considered cross-correlation denote detection diffracted dips distortions downward Earth model equation estimate event parameters extrapolation free surface gain adjustment geometrical divergence Goltsman Hence horizons identification impulsive seismogram input data interface interpretational inverse inverse dynamic inverse filter inverse problem iterative kinematic analogues Kozlov layer linear LPFM medium method moveout multichannel multiple events multiple reflections multiple suppression multiple wave field multiple-generating noise package non-zero NPFM obtained operator optimized peg-leg PFM procedure polynomial prediction errors primary and multiple primary events primary reflections pseudo-peg-leg recorded reflection coefficient reflectors respectively samples seismic nature sequence signal and noise signal package solution spiking deconvolution subset subtraction summogram technique time-distance curve Tm(x trace transfer function transmission losses uk(t variance velocity spectra wave packages wavelet wv(f z-transform z-transform domain