Identification of Damage Using Lamb Waves: From Fundamentals to Applications

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Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 1, 2009 - Technology & Engineering - 346 pages
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Lamb waves are guided waves that propagate in thin plate or shell structures. There has been a clear increase of interest in using Lamb waves for identifying structural damage, entailing intensive research and development in this field over the past two decades. Now on the verge of maturity for diverse engineering applications, this emerging technique serves as an encouraging candidate for facilitating continuous and automated surveillance of the integrity of engineering structures in a cost-effective manner. In comparison with conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques such as ultrasonic scanning and radiography which have been well developed over half a century, damage identification using Lamb waves is in a stage of burgeoning development, presenting a number of technical challenges in application that need to be addressed and circumvented. It is these two aspects that have encouraged us to write this book, with the intention of consolidating the knowledge and know-how in the field of Lamb-wave-based damage identification, and of promoting widespread attention to mature application of this technique in the practical engineering sphere. This book provides a comprehensive description of key facets of damage identification technique using Lamb waves, based on the authors’ knowledge, comprehension and experience, ranging from fundamental theory through case studies to engineering applications.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
12 Lambwavebased Damage Identification
3
13 About this Book
11
References
12
Fundamentals and Analysis of Lamb Waves
15
221 Theory of Lamb Waves
16
222 Lamb Waves in Plate of Multiple Layers
22
224 Cylindrical Lamb Waves
24
523 Joint Timefrequency Domain Analysis
155
53 Wavelet Transform
158
531 Continuous Wavelet Transform
159
532 Discrete Wavelet Transform
161
533 Selection of Wavelet Function
164
54 Processing of Lamb Wave Signals
168
543 Feature Extraction and Damage Index
171
544 Compression
178

225 Propagation Velocity Phase vs Group Velocities
25
226 Slowness
26
227 Dispersion
27
23 Numerical and Semianalytical Study
31
231 Transfer Matrix Method
33
232 Global Matrix Method
34
24 Finite Element Modelling and Simulation
35
242 Modelling Structural Damage
36
25 Attenuation of Lamb Waves
42
26 Influence of Temperatureq
47
27 Influence of Damage Orientation and Size
48
28 Summary
51
References
53
Activating and Receiving Lamb Waves
59
322 Piezoelectric Wafers and Piezocomposite Transducers
61
323 Laserbased Ultrasonics
62
325 Fibreoptic Sensors Reception Only
64
332 Optimal Design of Waveform
69
34 Mechanistic Models of Piezoelectric Transducers
72
342 Influence of Transducer Shape
73
Activating and Receiving Lamb Waves Both the So and A0 Modes in Delaminated Composite Laminates with Surfacebonded PZT Wafers
76
352 Modelling Coupled PZT Sensor
84
353 Validation in FEM Simulation
85
36 Summary
88
Sensors and Sensor Networks
99
42 Piezoelectric Transducer
101
421 Design of Piezoelectric Actuator and Sensor
102
422 Surfacemounting vs Embedding
106
43 Fibreoptic Sensor
109
432 Fibre Bragg Grating Sensor
110
433 FBG Sensor for Lamb Wave Collection
112
434 Surfacemounting vs Embedding
116
435 Directivity
117
44 Hybrid Piezoelectric Actuatoroptic Sensor Unit
119
45 Sensor Network
121
451 Arrangement and Optimisation of Sensor Network
123
452 Standardised Sensor Network
126
453 Commercial Sensor Network Techniques
128
46 Recent Developments
130
462 Wireless Sensor
131
47 Summary
133
References
134
Processing of Lamb Wave Signals
143
52 Digital Signal Processing
144
522 Frequency Domain Analysis
152
Digital Damage Fingerprints
181
56 Summary
184
References
186
Algorithms for Damage Identification Fusion of Signal Features
195
62 Data Fusion and Damage Identification Algorithms
196
621 Damage Index
199
623 Time Reversal for Identifying Damage
209
625 Lamb Wave Tomography
213
626 Probabilitybased Diagnostic Imaging
219
627 Phasedarray Beamforming
228
628 Artificial Intelligence
234
63 Architecture and Scheme of Data Fusion
241
632 Fusion Scheme
243
64 Summary
246
References
248
Application of Algorithms for Identifying Structural Damage Case Studies
255
711 Establishment of DI
256
712 Assessing Changes in Notch Size Using DI
258
72 Locating Delamination in a Composite Panel Using Timeofflight
261
73 Hierarchically Locating Multiple Delamination in a Composite Panel Using Timeofflight
263
731 Rationale
264
732 Experimental Validation
265
74 Evaluating Multiple Delamination in a Composite Panel Using Probabilitybased Diagnostic Imaging
268
743 Fusion of Probabilities for Diagnostic Imaging
271
75 Quantitatively Predicting Delamination in Composite Beams Using an Artificial Neural Network
273
752 ANN Training and Experimental Validation
276
76 Quantitatively Estimating Throughthickness Hole and Delamination in Composite Panels Using an Artificial Neural Network
277
762 Parameterised Modelling
280
763 ANN Training and Experimental Validation
281
Influential Issues
283
77 Identifying Structural Damage in a Composite Laminate Using Bayesian Inference
292
78 Summary
293
Systems and Engineering Applications
298
821 Signal Generation Subsystem
301
823 Central ControlAnalysis Unit
302
83 Application in Engineering Structures
305
832 Identification of Damage in Aerospace Structures
313
833 Evaluation of Integrity of Civil Infrastructure
320
84 Summary
324
References
325
Looking Forward
329
92 Prospects
331
References
339
Index
341
Copyright

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About the author (2009)

The authors are active researchers in the areas of smart materials and structures. In particular, Prof Ye is an internationally renowned research leader in advanced materials. His major research interests are in the general areas of composites science and technology, intelligent structures, nano-composites, structural integrity and durability. The research team, headed by Prof. Ye, has contributed fruitful achievements to damage identification using active sensor networks. Lin Ye has over 300 scientific publications including 180 refereed papers in leading international journals.