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Methods of identification
A phylogenetic system of the gymnosperms in the light of xylotomy
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Abies apertures circular Araucaria Araucariaceae biseriate bordered pits cells high cells in cross cells in height Cephalotaxaceae cheids chyma cells conifers cross field cross field 1–2 cross section Cupressaceae cupressoid dentate diam early tracheids earlywood exceptionally eye-shaped fairly frequently genera Growth rings gymnosperms Height of ray Horizontal walls Juniperus Larix late tracheids latewood longitudinal tracheids lumina marginal cells narrow nodular occasionally paired pits Picea Pinaceae Pinus Pit apertures Pit diameter pits in radial pits in tangential Plate Podocarpaceae radial walls rarely ray cells ray parenchyma cells ray structure ray-cell walls resin ducts rows short-elliptic simple pits single-row rays slightly slitlike sometimes species spiral thickenings tangential walls Taxaceae Taxales Taxodiaceae thin thin-walled tracheid walls tracheids bordered pits Tracheids in cross tracheids per sq tracheids pits transverse tracheids Tsuga uniseriate unpitted vertical wall thickness walls of ray walls of tracheids Walls of transverse walls of wood width Wood parenchyma cells xylotomical