Identifying population groups at high risk of social exclusion: evidence from the ECHP
In recent years in the public discourse of many European countries there has been a shift in emphasis from "povertyʺ to "social exclusionʺ. Broadly interpreted, "social exclusionʺ implies the "inability of an individual to participate in the basic political, economic and social functionings of the society in which she/he livesʺ. In practice, there is little consensus about its proper operationalisation. The paper approaches social exclusionʺ from the point of view of "chronic cumulative disadvantageʺ and attempts to identify population members at high risk of social exclusion in EU countries using the information of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). The results show that there are many qualitative similarities and quantitative differences across the EU. In almost all countries the looser the links of the individual or the household with the labour market the higher the risk of social exclusion. However, the extent to which secure and uninterrupted employment provides a shield against social exclusion varies a lot across countries. Moreover, in almost all countries children face a higher risk of social exclusion than the rest of the population. To a large extent, this risk is accounted by the higher than average risk of social exclusion facing children living in lone-parent households. On the contrary, older persons face a high risk of social exclusion in only a few southern EU countries.
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aged over 74 aggregate risk analysis average population member Belgium Ceteris paribus classified as deprived constrained workers countries the group's countries under examination country's population D E FR GR Denmark deprivation indicators deprived according DK D E ECHP Edward Elgar Employment status wave equivalence scales EUROSTAT evidence of Graph exclusion is higher facing a high field of Living Finland Germany GR IRL Greece group of persons group's members face group's relative risk group's risk Groups at High Groups formed according high risk household type households whose reference income Ireland IRL IT LUX Italy labor labor economics labour market Living Conditions living in households LUX NL PT Luxembourg members at high Netherlands NL PT UK person in wave persons at high population groups Portugal poverty poverty line precariously employed PT UK Graph relative risk factor reported in Graph risk of cumulative risk of social Spain substantially three waves welfare indicator