Image Formation in Low-voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy
While most textbooks about scanning electron microscopy (SEM) cover the high-voltage range from 5-50 keV, this volume considers the special problems in low-voltage SEM and summarizes the differences between LVSEM and conventional SEM. Chapters cover the influence of lens aberrations and design on electron-probe formation; the effect of elastic and inelastic scattering processes on electron diffusion and electron range; charging and radiation damage effects; the dependence of SE yield and the backscattering coefficient on electron energy, surface tilt, and material as well as the angular and energy distributions; and types of image contrast and the differences between LVSEM and conventional SEM modes due to the influence of electron-specimen interactions.
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