Image Formation in Low-voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy

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SPIE Press, 1993 - Science - 143 pages
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While most textbooks about scanning electron microscopy (SEM) cover the high-voltage range from 5-50 keV, this volume considers the special problems in low-voltage SEM and summarizes the differences between LVSEM and conventional SEM. Chapters cover the influence of lens aberrations and design on electron-probe formation; the effect of elastic and inelastic scattering processes on electron diffusion and electron range; charging and radiation damage effects; the dependence of SE yield and the backscattering coefficient on electron energy, surface tilt, and material as well as the angular and energy distributions; and types of image contrast and the differences between LVSEM and conventional SEM modes due to the influence of electron-specimen interactions.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
Electron Optics and Instrumentation
14
Electron Scattering and Diffusion
41
Backscattered and SecondaryElectron Emission
57
Specimen Charging and Damage
71
Signal Formation and Image Contrast
89
Electron Spectroscopic Methods
115
Bibliography
121
Index
140
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About the author (1993)

Reimer, University of Munster, Germany.

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