Image and Video Compression for Multimedia Engineering: Fundamentals, Algorithms, and Standards

Front Cover
CRC Press, Dec 20, 1999 - Technology & Engineering - 504 pages
2 Reviews
Advanced technologies have increased demands for visual information and higher quality video frames, as with 3-D movies, games, and HDTV. This taxes the available technologies and creates a gap between the huge amount of visual data required for multimedia applications and the still-limited hardware capabilities. Image and Video Compression for Multimedia Engineering bridges the gap with concise, authoritative information on video and image coding.

The tutorial provides a solid, comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals and algorithms of coding and details all of the relevant international coding standards. It presents recent findings on defining methods for generating high quality video bitstreams. The authors present recent research results and cover emerging technologies.

With the growing popularity of the applications that use large amounts of visual data, image and video coding is an active and dynamic field. Coverage of both image and video compression in this book yields a unique, self-contained reference, appropriate for all related professions. Image and Video Compression for Multimedia Engineering builds a basis for future study, research, and development.
 

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Contents

Introduction
3
11 PRACTICAL NEEDS FOR IMAGE AND VIDEO COMPRESSION
4
122 PSYCHOVISUAL REDUNDANCY
9
13 VISUAL QUALITY MEASUREMENT
18
131 SUBJECTIVE QUALITY MEASUREMENT
19
132 OBJECTIVE QUALITY MEASUREMENT
20
14 INFORMATION THEORY RESULTS
24
142 SHANNONS NOISELESS SOURCE CODING THEOREM
25
1135 SUBSAMPLING IN THE CORRELATION WlNDOW
227
1137 THRESHOLDING MULTIRESOLUTION BLOCK MATCHING
229
114 MATCHING ACCURACY
234
115 LIMITATIONS WITH BLOCK MATCHING TECHNIQUES
235
116 NEW IMPROVEMENTS
236
1162 MULTIGRID BLOCK MATCHING
238
1163 PREDICTIVE MOTION FIELD SEGMENTATION
242
1164 OVERLAPPED BLOCK MATCHING
244

143 SHANNONS NOISY CHANNEL CODING THEOREM
26
144 SHANNONS SOURCE CODING THEOREM
27
16 EXERCISES
28
Quantization
31
22 UNIFORM QUANTIZATION
33
222 OPTIMUM UNIFORM QUANTIZER
37
23 NONUNIFORM QUANTIZATION
40
231 OPTIMUM NONUNIFORM QUANTIZATION
42
232 COMPANDING QUANTIZATION
43
24 ADAPTIVE QUANTIZATION
45
241 FORWARD ADAPTIVE QUANTIZATION
47
242 BACKWARD ADAPTIVE QUANTIZATION
48
25 PCM
49
26 SUMMARY
50
27 EXERCISES
52
Differential Coding
55
312 GENERAL DPCM SYSTEMS
58
32 OPTIMUM LINEAR PREDICTION
60
322 ORTHOGONALITY CONDITION AND MINIMUM MEAN SQUARE ERROR
61
323 SOLUTION TO YULEWALKER EQUATIONS
62
332 1D 2D AND 3D DPCM
63
333 ORDER OF PREDICTOR
64
335 EFFECT OF TRANSMISSION ERRORS
65
35 INTERFRAME DIFFERENTIAL CODING
68
352 3D DPCM
69
353 MOTIONCOMPENSATED PREDICTIVE CODING
71
37 SUMMARY
72
38 EXERCISES
73
Transform Coding
75
412 STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION
77
413 GEOMETRICAL INTERPRETATION
78
414 BASIS VECTOR INTERPRETATION
79
415 PROCEDURES OF TRANSFORM CODING
80
422 BASIS IMAGE INTERPRETATION
83
423 SUBIMAGE SIZE SELECTION
84
431 DISCRETE FOURIER TRANSFORM DFT
85
432 DISCRETE WALSH TRANSFORM DWT
86
433 DISCRETE HADAMARD TRANSFORM DHT
87
434 DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM DCT
88
435 PERFORMANCE COMPARISON
92
44 BIT ALLOCATION
95
442 THRESHOLD CODING
96
45 SOME ISSUES
102
453 COMPARISON BETWEEN DPCM AND TC
103
47 EXERCISES
105
REFERENCES
106
VariableLength Coding Information Theory Results II
107
512 SOME DESIRED CHARACTERISTICS
108
513 DISCRETE MEMORYLESS SOURCES
111
514 EXTENSIONS OF A DISCRETE MEMORYLESS SOURCE
112
52 HUFFMAN CODES
114
522 HUFFMAN CODING ALGORITHM
115
53 MODIFIED HUFFMAN CODES
117
532 ALGORITHM
118
534 BOUNDS ON AVERAGE CODEWORD LENGTH
119
541 LIMITATIONS OF HUFFMAN CODING
120
543 IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES
125
544 HISTORY
126
545 APPLICATIONS
127
56 EXERCISES
128
REFERENCES
129
RunLength and Dictionary Coding Information Theory Results III
131
612 EXTENSIONS OF A DISCRETE MARKOV SOURCE
133
62 RUNLENGTH CODING RLC
134
622 2D RUNLENGTH CODING
135
623 EFFECT OF TRANSMISSION ERROR AND UNCOMPRESSED MODE
138
63 DIGITAL FACSIMILE CODING STANDARDS
139
64 DICTIONARY CODING
140
643 PARSING STRATEGY
141
644 SLIDING WINDOW LZ77 ALGORITHMS
142
645 LZ78 ALGORITHMS
145
65 INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR LOSSLESS STILL IMAGE COMPRESSION
149
651 LOSSLESS BILEVEL STILL IMAGE COMPRESSION
150
66 SUMMARY
151
67 EXERCISES
152
REFERENCES
153
Still Image Compression
155
Still Image Coding Standard JPEG
157
72 SEQUENTIAL DCTBASED ENCODING ALGORITHM
159
73 PROGRESSIVE DCTBASED ENCODING ALGORITHM
163
74 LOSSLESS CODING MODE
164
75 HIERARCHICAL CODING MODE
166
76 SUMMARY
167
Wavelet Transform for Image Coding
169
812 DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM
172
82 DIGITAL WAVELET TRANSFORM FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION
174
822 EMBEDDED IMAGE WAVELET TRANSFORM CODING ALGORITHMS
176
83 WAVELET TRANSFORM FOR JPEG2000
179
832 VERIFICATION MODEL OF JPEG2000
180
84 SUMMARY
182
REFERENCES
183
Nonstandard Image Coding
185
92 VECTOR QUANTIZATION
186
922 SEVERAL IMAGE CODING SCHEMES WITH VECTOR QUANTIZATION
189
923 LATTICE VQ FOR IMAGE CODING
191
93 FRACTAL IMAGE CODING
193
932 IFSBASED FRACTAL IMAGE CODING
195
933 OTHER FRACTAL IMAGE CODING METHODS
197
942 IMAGE MODELING
198
REFERENCES
199
Motion Estimation and Compression
201
Motion Analysis and Motion Compensation
203
102 INTERFRAME CORRELATION
205
103 FRAME REPLENISHMENT
208
104 MOTIONCOMPENSATED CODING
209
105 MOTION ANALYSIS
211
1051 BIOLOGICAL VISION PERSPECTIVE
212
1053 SIGNAL PROCESSING PERSPECTIVE
213
106 MOTION COMPENSATION FOR IMAGE SEQUENCE PROCESSING
214
1062 MOTIONCOMPENSATED ENHANCEMENT
215
1063 MOTIONCOMPENSATED RESTORATION
217
108 EXERCISES
218
REFERENCES
219
Block Matching
221
112 MATCHING CRITERIA
222
113 SEARCHING PROCEDURES
224
1133 COARSEFINE THREESTEP SEARCH
226
117 SUMMARY
245
118 EXERCISES
247
REFERENCES
248
Pel Recursive Technique
251
122 DESCENT METHODS
252
1222 SECONDORDER SUFFICIENT CONDITIONS
253
1224 CONVERGENCE SPEED
255
1225 STEEPEST DESCENT METHOD
256
1226 NEWTONRAPHSONS METHOD
257
1227 OTHER METHODS
258
1231 INCLUSION OF A NEIGHBORHOOD AREA
259
1234 PERFORMANCE
260
1243 THE CAFFORIO AND ROCCA ALGORITHM
261
126 SUMMARY
262
REFERENCES
263
Optical Flow
265
1312 APERTURE PROBLEM
266
1313 ILLPOSED INVERSE PROBLEM
267
1314 CLASSIFICATION OF OPTICAL FLOW TECHNIQUES
269
1322 MODIFIED HORN AND SCHUNCK METHOD
273
1323 THE LUCAS AND KANADE METHOD
275
1324 THE NAGEL METHOD
276
1331 THE ANANDAN METHOD
277
1332 THE SINGH METHOD
278
1333 THE PAN SHI AND SHU METHOD
281
134 MULTIPLE ATTRIBUTES FOR CONSERVATION INFORMATION
293
1341 THE WENG AHUJA AND HUANG METHOD
294
1342 THE XIA AND SHI METHOD
296
135 SUMMARY
300
136 EXERCISES
301
REFERENCES
302
Further Discussion and Summary on 2D Motion Estimation
305
1413 CONSERVATION INFORMATION AND NEIGHBORHOOD INFORMATION
306
1415 RIGID AND NONRIGID MOTION
307
142 DIFFERENT CLASSIFICATIONS
308
1423 REGIONBASED APPROACHES vs GRADIENTBASED APPROACHES
311
1424 FORWARD vs BACKWARD MOTION ESTIMATION
312
143 PERFORMANCE COMPARISON AMONG THREE MAJOR APPROACHES
313
1432 ALGORITHM PARAMETERS
314
144 NEW TRENDS
315
145 SUMMARY
318
146 EXERCISES
319
Video Compression
321
Fundamentals of Digital Video Coding
323
RATE DISTORTION FUNCTION OF VIDEO SIGNAL
324
153 DIGITAL VIDEO FORMATS
327
154 CURRENT STATUS OF DIGITAL VIDEOIMAGE CODING STANDARDS
328
155 SUMMARY
331
REFERENCES
332
Digital Video Coding Standards MPEG12 Video
333
1621 MPEG1 FEATURES
334
1622 MPEG2 ENHANCEMENTS
340
163 MPEG2 VIDEO ENCODING
346
1633 MOTION ESTIMATION AND MOTION COMPENSATION
347
164 RATE CONTROL
350
165 OPTIMUM MODE DECISION
354
1652 PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING THE OPTIMAL MODE
357
1653 PRACTICAL SOLUTION WITH NEW CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF CODING MODE
359
166 STATISTICAL MULTIPLEXING OPERATIONS ON MULTIPLE PROGRAM ENCODING
360
1662 VBR ENCODERS IN STATMUX
362
1663 RESEARCH TOPICS OF STATMUX
363
167 SUMMARY
365
REFERENCES
366
Application Issues of MPEG12 Video Coding
367
1722 TECHNICAL OVERVIEW OF ATSC SYSTEMS
368
173 TRANSCODING WITH BITSTREAM SCALING
371
1732 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BITSTREAM SCALING
373
1733 ARCHITECTURES OF BITSTREAM SCALING
374
1734 ANALYSIS
378
174 DOWNCONVERSION DECODER
379
1742 FREQUENCY SYNTHESIS DOWNCONVERSION
381
1743 LOWRESOLUTION MOTION COMPENSATION
383
1744 THREELAYER SCALABLE DECODER
385
1745 SUMMARY OF DOWNCONVERSION DECODER
388
1747 FULLRESOLUTION MOTION COMPENSATION IN MATRIX FORM
389
175 ERROR CONCEALMENT
391
1752 ERROR CONCEALMENT ALGORITHMS
392
1753 ALGORITHM ENHANCEMENTS
397
1754 SUMMARY OF ERROR CONCEALMENT
400
177 EXERCISES
401
MPEG4 Video Standard ContentBased Video Coding
403
182 MPEG4 REQUIREMENTS AND FUNCTIONALITIES
404
1823 UNIVERSAL ACCESS
405
183 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF MPEG4 VIDEO
406
1832 MOTION ESTIMATION AND COMPENSATION
407
1833 TEXTURE CODING
409
1834 SHAPE CODING
413
1835 SPRITE CODING
416
1836 INTERLACED VIDEO CODING
417
1838 GENERALIZED SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SCALABILITY
418
1839 ERROR RESILIENCE
419
184 MPEG4 VISUAL BITSTREAM SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS
420
185 MPEG4 VIDEO VERIFICATION MODEL
421
1851 VOPBASED ENCODING AND DECODING PROCESS
422
1853 VIDEO DECODER
426
186 SUMMARY
427
ITUT Video Coding Standards H261 and H263
429
1922 TECHNICAL DETAIL OF H261
430
1923 SYNTAX DESCRIPTION
432
193 H263 VIDEOCODING STANDARD
433
1932 TECHNICAL FEATURES OF H263
434
194 H263 VIDEO CODING STANDARD VERSION 2
439
195 H263++ VIDEO CODING AND H26L
446
196 SUMMARY
447
MPEG System Video Audio and Data Multiplexing
449
202 MPEG2 SYSTEM
450
2022 TRANSPORT STREAMS
451
2023 TRANSPORT STREAM SPLICING
456
2024 PROGRAM STREAMS
458
2025 TIMING MODEL AND SYNCHRONIZATION
459
203 MPEG4 SYSTEM
462
2032 SYSTEMS DECODER MODEL
464
2033 SCENE DESCRIPTION
465
2034 OBJECT DESCRIPTION FRAMEWORK
466
REFERENCES
467
Index
469
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