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abstract according Aristotle assumed atoms become body Cartesian Cartesian dualism causal cause conceived concept connection consciousness contradiction Critique Demokritos derived Descartes determined doctrine empirical empiricism Erdmann everything existence experience explained external faculty force Geschichte des Materialismus Geulinx given Herakleitos human reason Hume idea of substance ideal imagination important impossible individual infinite intellectual intelligible intuition Kant Kant's knowledge Leibniz Locke logical Malebranche manifold material world mathematical matter means mechanical metaphysic mind modern philosophy monads motion namely nature necessity never nihil objects origin outer world perceive phenomena Plato possible predicate principle priori proposition pure reason qualities quod rational rational psychology reality recognised regard relation representation Robert Mayer Scholasticism Schopenhauer sense sensible perception sensuous Sokrates soul space speculative speculative reason Spinoza spirit synthetical synthetical propositions theory things thinkers thinking tion transcendental true truth understanding unity universe whole words
Page 353 - If we take in our hand any volume, of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance, let us ask, Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number ? No. Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence ? No.
Page 347 - Here, then, is a kind of pre-established harmony between the course of nature and the succession of our ideas; and though the powers and forces, by which the former is governed, be wholly unknown to us; yet our thoughts and conceptions have still, we find, gone on in the same train with the other works of nature.
Page 230 - Whereas, were the capacities of our understandings well considered, the extent of our knowledge once discovered, and the horizon found which sets the bounds between the enlightened and dark parts of things; between what is and what is not comprehensible by us, men would perhaps with less scruple acquiesce in the avowed ignorance of the one, and employ their thoughts and discourse with more advantage and satisfaction in the other.
Page 350 - Propositions of this kind are discoverable by the mere operation of thought, without dependence on what is anywhere existent in the universe. Though there never were a circle or triangle in nature, the truths demonstrated by Euclid would for ever retain their certainty and evidence.
Page 343 - But do we pretend to be acquainted with the nature of the human soul and the nature of an idea, or the aptitude of the one to produce the other...
Page 398 - THAT all our knowledge begins with experience there can be no doubt. For how is it possible that the faculty of cognition should be awakened into exercise otherwise than by means of objects which affect our senses, and partly of themselves produce representations, partly rouse our powers of...
Page 236 - I think it is easy to draw this observation, that the ideas of primary qualities of bodies are resemblances of them, and their patterns do really exist in the bodies themselves; but the ideas produced in us by these secondary qualities have no resemblance of them at all.
Page 346 - It is certain, that the most ignorant and stupid peasants, nay infants, nay even brute beasts, improve by experience, and learn the qualities of natural objects, by observing the effects which result from them. When a child has felt the sensation of pain from touching the flame of a candle, he will be careful not to put his hand near any candle ; but will expect a similar effect from a cause which is similar ii> its sensible qualities and appearance.
Page 352 - It is universally allowed by modern enquirers, that all the sensible qualities of objects, such as hard, soft, hot, cold, white, black, &c. are merely secondary, and exist not in the objects themselves, but are perceptions of the mind, without any external archetype or model, which they represent. If this be allowed, with regard to secondary qualities, it must also follow, with regard to the supposed primary qualities of extension and solidity; nor can the latter be any more entitled to that denomination...