Impact of Forest Stressors on the Tree Species of the Nicolet National Forest, Past, Present, and Future
USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, Forest Health Protection, 1998 - Nicolet National Forest (Wis.) - 103 pages
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Aerial Detection Survey Age Class Distribution American elm areas Armillaria root disease aspen stands balsam fir beech black ash black spruce blister rust borer browsing Butternut canker caused common damage decay decline defoliation dieback drought dwarf mistletoe exotic insects Figure fires forest health forest tent caterpillar forest type fungus Future Disturbance Agents growing gypsy moth Historical Disturbance Agents increase insect and disease Insects and Pathogens introduced basswood thrips jack pine jack pine budworm jack pine stands killed larch sawfly logging lowland hardwood Major Insects Major lakes Major Nicolet National Forest northeastern Wisconsin northern pin oak occurred older stands overstory paper birch percent pest plantations quaking aspen Recent Disturbance Agents red maple red pine red pine stands regeneration reported resource shoot blight significant spittlebug spruce budworm stress sugar maple tamarack Today tree health tree mortality tree species USDA Forest Service vigorous white pine white spruce windthrow yellow birch