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73 days Abies balsamea Abies balsamea Acer American elm American hornbeam aspen quaking aspen associated species balsam fir balsam fir red balsam poplar Betula alleghaniensis birch paper birch black spruce Constant Inundation B.l. dominant on loamy dominant species dormant season eastern hemlock eastern hophornbeam eastern white pine ecoregion elm balsam fir fir red maple flooded less Fraxinus grandidentata growing season 13 healthy if flooded Height growth Inundation Seedling jack pine Larix laricina maple yellow birch Mature tree Mature Mature tree Species Northern Hardwoods northern red oak Ostrya virginiana paper birch papyrifera Partial Submersion pine balsam poplar plant Populus balsamifera Quercus red maple response to water Root Development rubra Seedling Size Mature sites Abies balsamea Soil Saturation Species response strobus Populus balsamifera Survival Under Constant Thuja Total Submersion tree Mature tree tremuloides Tsuga canadensis Tsuga canadensis Ulmus water level changes water table wetland Year-round Table yellow birch yellow birch paper