Imperial Form: From Achaemenid to Augustan Rome
After the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenic influence held sway over a vast territory, from Macedonia in the west to India in the east; from Egypt in the south to Samarkand in the north. Imperial Form starts with the architecture of the great Achaemenid empire and describes the coming together of the Hellenic and Asian ideals and the resulting hybrid art.
The story continues with the architecture of the Roman republic and its subsequent Hellenisation, preserved for us at Pompeii. Finally, the advances in building technology pioneered by the Romans - a direct result of the discipline of their military life and the authority of their political administration - led to a new architecture of space in the age of Augustus, rooted in a revival of the old religion and given canonical expression by Vitruvius.
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1st century 2nd century bc 4th century BC Achaemenid acropolis agora Ahura Mazda altar amphitheatre ancient apadana arcades architecture Athena Polias atrium Banditaccia cemetery base Basilica Baths blocks built Campania capital cavea cella centre circular colonnade columns compluvium Corinthian cornice cult Darius decoration developed Doric early east Egypt empire entablature entrance Etruscans Forum Romanum frieze Gauls Greek grid hall Hellas Hellenic classicism Hellenistic imperial impluvium inches Ionia Ionic feet Ionic Order Julius Caesar Jupiter Capitolinus king later marble masonry megaron metres monumental moulding opisthodomos original overleaf palace palaestra Pasargadae pediment Pergamon peristyle Persepolis pilasters platform podium Pompeii portico precinct Priene pteron Pythios rebuilt reconstruction rectangular relief Roman Rome roof sanctuary scenae seating Seleucid semi-circular side space square stoa stone street structure tablinum Temple of Athena Temple of Jupiter terrace theatre timber tombs town tradition usually vault villa Vitruvius volume volutes wall Zeus