Implication Analysis for Biotechnology Regulation and Management in Africa: Baseline Studies for Assessment of Potential Effects of Genetically Modified Maize (Zea Mays L.) Cultivation in Ghanaian Agriculture
Genetically modified organisms (GMO) are traded as staple crops on the world market. The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety gives sovereign rights to each country to implement its own regulatory regime to protect their landscapes and agricultural heritage. Data on the receiving environment for countries in Africa are limited. How would it be possible to maintain the options of agriculture with or without GMO, and organic farming? Decisions require not only lab-testing of crops but also data on the different agricultural structures, field sizes, and socioeconomic conditions. This book presents an introduction into the topic, experiences from biosafety research executed in the EU and most important, insight into small-scale African agriculture that is of highest relevance for food security of a population majority. The data substantiates, that crop purity as a condition to maintain cultivation options and access export markets require highest attention and solutions that still have to be found.
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Risk assessment of transgenic crops
Methodological approaches adapted from the international
Documentation of reagents materials and instruments used
accessed Accra Accra West acreage m2 African analysis average biosafety Brassica napus Bremen commercial contamination context conventional fields criteria cross-pollination cross-pollination rates demographic density distance ranges environmental estimated factors farm neighbours farmers feral locations feral populations feral stands Figure flowering gene flow Genetically Modified Organisms Ghana GM crops GM fields GM maize grain Greenpeace herbicide higher home compounds household impacts implications intercropped land landraces maize crops maize cultivation maize farming maize fields meters napus nearest distance non-GM Number of farm number of feral obtained occur oilseed rape open pollinated OPVs outcrossing percentile potential previous harvests production Protocol region relation relevant risk assessment samples scenario sector seed exchange Selommes SIGMEA Simulation small-scale socioeconomic sources spatial specific study area subsistence Table tion total number traditional traffic areas transgenic crops transgenic maize University of Bremen Urban Agriculture variability