Impulse Breakdown of Liquids

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Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 21, 2007 - Technology & Engineering - 398 pages
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The book describes the main physical processes and phenomena in pulsed electric breakdown. The knowledge and the control of the electric breakdown of liquids is important not only for the insulation inside power systems but it is also used for the creation and information of high voltage and high current pulses. Such high-voltage micro- and nanosecond pulses find wide application in experimental physics, electro discharge technology, physics of dielectrics, radar detection and ranging, high-speed photography.

 

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Contents

Behavior of Liquids in Strong Electric Fields
1
112 Nature of the electrostriction pressure
3
12 Transient Processes of Establishing Pressure
4
121 Electrostriction wave near the spherical electrode under impulse voltage
5
122 Dipole saturation effect in water and its influence on prebreakdown processes in the system of tip electrodes
9
123 Electrostriction waves in a coaxial line
13
13 HighVoltage Electric Conduction of Liquids
20
132 Motion of charge carriers
22
423 Discharge in Purified Water and Ethyl Alcohol
164
424 Discharge in Liquids with Increased Electrical Conduction
171
425 Special Features of the Discharge on the Voltage Impulse Front
173
426 Summary and Discussion of Results
175
43 Kinetics of Nanosecond Discharges
178
432 Discharge in Transformer Oil
182
44 Discharge in a Liquid with a Solid Dielectric Interface
183
441 Barrier Effect
185

14 Phenomena at the Electrodes
24
141 Double electric layer
25
142 Nearsurface charge generation
27
143 Emission of charge carriers and electrode reactions
35
144 Field distribution at the electrodes
37
15 Pressure Distribution during Charge Carrier Emission
41
152 Sharply nonuniform field
43
References
46
Behaviour of the Gas Phase in Liquids in Strong Electric Fields
52
212 Deformation in an Electric Field
56
213 Deformation and Stability
57
214 Deformation in the Linear Approximation
58
215 Stability
60
22 Influence of the Electric Field on the Bubble Formation
67
222 Influence of Pressure Variations Inside the Bubble on Phase Equilibrium
69
223 Calculations of the Pressure Inside the Bubble upon Small Deformations
71
224 Influence of the Bubble Shape Instability on Boiling of Liquids
73
225 Influence of the Electric Field on the Boiling Point of Liquids
74
226 Influence of the Electric Field on Metastable Liquids
75
23 Analysis of Prebreakdown Bubbles
78
231 Deformation of a Moving Bubble in an Electric Field
79
232 Influence of Electrohydrodynamic Flows
80
24 Experimental Investigations of Gas Bubble Behavior in an Electric Field
85
242 Setup
86
243 Formation of Longliving Bubbles and their Behavior in Prebreakdown Fields
89
244 Discussion of Experimental Results
92
245 Discharge Ignition in Water with the Help of Bubbles
99
References
104
Discharge Propagation in Short Gaps with a Quasiuniform Field
109
31 Discharge Propagation from Anode
110
32 Discharge Phenomena in Submillimeter DistilledWater Gaps
121
33 Time Boundaries of Anode and Cathode Discharges in nHexane
123
34 Influence of the Pressure on the Electric Discharge Mechanisms
125
35 On the Nature of Electric Hardening of Liquids in Micron Gaps
128
References
130
Discharge Propagation in Gaps with a NonUniform Field
133
41 Spatial Structure of a Discharge
134
411 Appearance of Discharge Figures
135
412 Electrostatic Properties of Discharge Figures
139
413 Dependence of the Spatial Structure of Discharge Figures on the Main Influencing Factors
144
42 Discharge Kinetics under Microsecond Impulse Voltage
156
421 Highly Nonuniform Fields Small r0
157
422 Weakly Nonuniform Fields Large r0
162
442 Creepage DischargeFrashover
192
45 Ionization Region and its Parameters
204
46 Parameters of the Leader Channel
207
462 Steadystate Values of the Leader Channel Parameters
212
47 Processes in the Stage of Transition from the Leader to an Arc
226
References
230
Statistical Investigations of the Electrical Breakdown
239
512 Automated System for Statistical Investigations
241
513 Methods of Analyzing Statistical Distributions of the Discharge Time Lag
243
52 Dependence of the Statistical Characteristics on the Discharge Conditions
248
53 Discharge Mechanisms in Liquids from the Data of Statistical Investigations
252
References
261
Basic Laws Describing of the Impulse Electric Strength of Liquids
263
62 Voltage Polarity
273
63 External Pressure
276
64 Temperature
279
65 Chemical Nature and Composition of Liquids
281
652 Electrical Conduction and Permittivity
282
653 Soluble Additives
286
654 Insoluble Impurities
294
655 Moisture
299
66 Discharge Gap Geometry and Conditions on the Electrodes
301
662 Dielectric Electrode Coatings
306
664 Electrode Area
309
665 Liquid Dielectric Volume in the Interelectrode Gap
311
References
314
Physical Discharge Initiation Ignition Mechanisms
319
71 Bubble Discharge Initiation Mechanism
320
711 Physical Model of Discharge Initiation
321
712 Comparison with Experimental Results
328
72 Microexplosive Discharge Initiation Mechanism
338
722 Cathode Initiation
356
73 Ionization Mechanism of Discharge Initiation
363
References
365
Mechanisms of Discharge Propagation and their Applicability Limits
369
81 Propagation of the Fast Anode Channel
370
82 Propagation of the Slow Cathode Channel
378
83 Boundaries of the Regions of Existence of Slow and Fast Discharges
384
84 Conversion of the Initial Channel into the Leader Formation of the Leader Step
386
85 Conditions of Realization of the Leader Process
392
References
393
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