In a Perfect Ocean: The State Of Fisheries And Ecosystems In The North Atlantic Ocean
Recent decades have been marked by the decline or collapse of one fishery after another around the world, from swordfish in the North Atlantic to orange roughy in the South Pacific. While the effects of a collapse on local economies and fishing-dependent communities have generated much discussion, little attention has been paid to its impacts on the overall health of the ocean's ecosystems.In a Perfect Ocean: The State of Fisheries and Ecosystems in the North Atlantic Ocean presents the first empirical assessment of the status of ecosystems in the North Atlantic ocean. Drawing on a wide range of studies including original research conducted for this volume, the authors analyze 14 large marine ecosystems to provide an indisputable picture of an ocean whose ecology has been dramatically altered, resulting in a phenomenon described by the authors as "fishing down the food web." The book:provides a snapshot of the past health of the North Atlantic and compares it to its present statuspresents a rigorous scientific assessment based on the key criteria of fisheries catches, biomass, and trophic levelconsiders the factors that have led to the current situationdescribes the policy options available for halting the declineoffers recommendations for restoring the North AtlanticAn original and powerful series of maps and charts illustrate where the effects of overfishing are the most pronounced and highlight the interactions among various factors contributing to the overall decline of the North Atlantic's ecosystems.This is the first in a series of assessments by the world's leading marine scientists, entitled "The State of the World's Oceans." In a Perfect Ocean: The State of Fisheries and Ecosystems in the North Atlantic Ocean is a landmark study, the first of its kind to make a comprehensive, ecosystem-based assessment of the North Atlantic Ocean, and will be essential reading for policymakers at the state, national, and international level concerned with fisheries management, as well for scientists, researchers, and activists concerned with marine issues or fishing and the fisheries industry.
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A Brief History of the North Atlantic and Its Resources
Past Abundance in the North Atlantic
Development of North Atlantic Fisheries
Effects of Technology
The Importance of Understanding the Past
The Decline of North Atlantic Fisheries
How Much Fish Is Being Caught?
Fishing Effort and Related Indices
Institutions and Equity
What to Do?
Reducing Fishing Effort
Transforming the Market
Leaning on the Firewall Between Science and Advocacy
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abundance Agreement allowable catch Andrea Gail areas assessment Atlantic cod benefits biomass boats Canada caught century Christensen coastal cod populations collapse compliance Conservation consumed consumption continental shelves Convention Council countries decline depleted developed effects efficiency energy eries estimates European example exclusive economic zone exploit Figure fish populations fish species fisheries catches fisheries management fishing effort fishing fleets fishing grounds fishing industry food webs fuel gear groundfish Gulf of Maine Iceland ICES illegal catches impact increase invertebrates land large-scale major maps marine ecosystems marine mammals marine reserves ment million metric tons National North Atlantic fisheries North Atlantic Ocean North Sea Northwest Atlantic Norway numbers Organization overfishing Pauly plankton predators present production Project protein quotas reef result salmon scientists sector small fish small-scale subsidies Sumaila sustainable target thev tion trawl trends trophic level tuna UNCLOS unreported waters whaling