Incidence and impact of oak decline in western Virginia, 1986
Steven W. Oak, Cindy M. Huber, Raymond M. Sheffield, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (Asheville, N.C.)
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, 1991 - Nature - 16 pages
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10-year age class 13.8 million cubic 6.2 Affected acre and annual affected and unaffected annual mortality volume annual oak mortality area and volume chestnut oak stands chronological age codominant damage decline symptoms decline-affected defoliation Department of Agriculture dieback feet per acre Forest Experiment Station forest type group gypsy moth Hydric Initial basal area mesic landforms million cubic feet mortality per acre Mountain and Northern National Forest land Northern Piedmont Survey oak decline affected Oak decline incidence Oak decline occurred oak forest types oak mortality volume Oak Square feet Oak Total Oak oak volume ownerships percentage of oak Physiographic class physiography Piedmont Survey Units Piedmont Unit proportion of oak red oak senescence Southeastern Forest Experiment Southern southern upland stand age stand density Starkey study area total annual mortality Total Oak Square Total Oak Total trees U.S. Department unaffected areas Units of Virginia upland hardwood volume loss volume per acre xeric