Independence, efficiency, and role of judges: recommendation no. R (94) 12 adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 13 October 1994 : and explanatory memorandum
Council of Europe. Committee of Ministers, Project Group on Efficiency and Fairness of Civil Justice
Council of Europe Publishing, 1995 - Law - 25 pages
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13 October administration appoint judges appro authority based on objective career of judges carry out responsibilities Committee of Ministers concerning the professional Council of Europe criminal decisions concerning disciplinary offences duties economic sanctions efficiency and fairness efficiency and role efficient and proper ensure that judges excessive workload exercising judicial functions explanatory memorandum fail to carry fair and public Fairness of Civil Human Rights impartial tribunal established inde independence of judges independent and impartial instance interests of justice judicial independence judicial responsibilities judicial system judicial tasks judiciary lay judges legal traditions ministry of justice Nations Basic Principles necessary measures non-judicial tasks objective criteria paragraph 2.f parties persons exercising judicial PORTUGAL presence of security procedures professional career professional judges promote the independence Proper working conditions protection of judges responsibilities and disciplinary role of judges rule of law safeguard selection and career term of office United Nations Basic valid reasons