Indicators of the Environmental Impacts of Transportation: Highway, Rail, Aviation and Marine Transport
Presents quantitative nat. est. of the magnitude of transport's. impacts on the environ. It is the most comprehensive compilation of environmental and transport. data to date. Addresses all primary modes of transport. (highway, rail, aviation, and maritime transport) and all environ'l. media (air, water, and land resources), and covers the full "life-cycle" of transport., from construction of infrastructure and mfg. of vehicles to disposal of vehicles and parts. The impacts of transport. extend beyond the air quality impacts of vehicle travel. Presents a framework for developing various types of indicators and for categorizing transport. activities that affect the environ. Illustrated.
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air pollution aircraft Amtrak annually areas Aviation batteries Causal Factors cause Class I railroads cleaning contamination damage Data unavailable dB(A deicing Department of Transportation Description of Impact disposal dredged material ecosystems effects emissions Emissions 1970 emitted environment environmental impacts environmental indicators Environmental Protection Agency estimates facilities FHWA freight fuel fugitive dust Habitat disruption hazardous materials Hazardous materials incidents Highway impacts of transportation increased Indicators Quantified Outcome/Results infrastructure landfilled lead-acid batteries manufacture marine Maritime Vessels measures mileage miles million motor vehicles noise noise barriers outcome indicators passenger percent Population density Presentation of Indicators Quantified Activity Indicators Quantified Data Quantified Outcome/Results Indicators Quantified Output Indicators rail transport refueling result road runoff Short Tons Source species spills statistics tank terminal operations Toxic releases track transportation's trucks types of indicators U.S. DOT U.S. EPA United States Environmental urban wastewater water quality wetlands wildlife
Page 104 - ... contained release of a fluid into a subsurface well for the purpose of waste disposal. TRANSFERS ~ is a transfer of toxic chemicals in wastes to a facility that is geographically or physically separate from the facility reporting under TRI. The quantities reported represent a movement of the chemical away from the reporting facility. Except for off-site transfers for disposal, these quantities do not necessarily represent entry of the chemical into the environment. Transfers to POTWs ~ are wastewaters...
Page 190 - ... within a given operation; therefore, waste generation and management will be discussed on an operation-specific basis, rather than in terms of a yard as a whole. Table 12.1 summarizes the wastes and their operational sources. Table 12.1: Marine Maintenance and Repair Facility Wastes Operation Origin All Air emissions from storage tanks and open processing equipment emissions Grit blasting and chemical stripping Spray painting, resin application Engine repair Electroplating/metal finishing operations...
Page 93 - Lead in Municipal Solid Waste Lead is widespread in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream; it is in both the combustible and noncombustible portions of MSW. Discharges of lead in MSW are overwhelmingly greater than discards of cadmium. Lead-acid batteries, primarily batteries for automobiles, rank first, by a wide margin, of the products containing lead that enter the waste stream. Trends in quantities of lead discarded in products in MSW, ranked by tonnage discarded in 1986, are shown in Table...
Page 190 - ... paint sludges, heavy metals, stripping chemicals, VOC emissions Waste paints, thinners, degreasers, solvents, resins and gelcoat, VOC emissions Waste turbine oil, lubricants, degreasers, mild acids, batteries, carburetor cleaners, VOC emissions Cyanide solutions; heavy metal sludges, corrosive acid and alkali solutions Spent cutting and lube oils, scrap metal, degreasers, VOC emissions Wastewater containing paints, solvents, oils and degreasers Resin and paint contaminated solvents, VOC emissions...
Page 190 - Degreasing, equipment cleaning, chemical paint stripping, reinforced plastic fabrication Vessel bilge cleaning Waste Description Leftover raw material containers (eg, bags, fiber drums) with residual raw materials Volatile organic compounds (VOQ emissions Wastewater containing blasting media, organic paint sludges, heavy metals, stripping chemicals, VOC emissions Waste paints, thinners, degreasers, solvents, resins and gelcoat, VOC emissions Waste turbine oil, lubricants, degreasers, mild acids,...
Page 190 - ... operational sources. Table 12.1: Marine Maintenance and Repair Facility Wastes Operation Origin All Air emissions from storage tanks and open processing equipment emissions Grit blasting and chemical stripping Spray painting, resin application Engine repair Electroplating/metal finishing operations Machine Shops Equipment cleaning, area washdown Degreasing, equipment cleaning, chemical paint stripping, reinforced plastic fabrication Vessel bilge cleaning Waste Description Leftover raw material...
Page 60 - Point emissions occur through confined air streams as found in stacks, vents, ducts, or pipes. Fugitive emissions include equipment leaks, evaporative losses from surface impoundments and spills, and releases from building ventilation systems.
Page 77 - ... to noise and because of the frustration resulting from the deterioration in the quality of life and sleep. The findings of the many studies undertaken in OECD countries on the effects of noise and its wider repercussions point to the fact that in order to comply with desirable limits for well-being indoors, the outdoor level should not exceed 65 dB(A) (Leq by day).
Page 44 - A study of the influence of narrow forest-dividing corridors (small roads and powerlines) on forest-nesting birds in southern New Jersey revealed that, although not generally viewed as sources of forest fragmentation, such corridors measurably affect the diversity and abundance of birds in ways that are associated typically with the effects of forest fragmentation...