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DOES ADVERTISING CAUSE INCREASED
DOES CONCENTRATION CAUSE INCREASED
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according adver advertising and concentration advertising expenditures advertising intensity appears Appendix argued argument average barriers to entry basis brand loyalty capital causes centration changes classes Classification in percents Coefficient collusion competition Concentration Industrial concentration ratios consumer goods industries correlation costs demand dependent determined differences durable Economics economies of scale effects elasticity empirical equations error estimated evidence example existing experience explained findings firms four four-digit Four-firm greater higher highly increases independent industrial concentration Industrial Ratio Ratio insignificant Journal larger lead linear market share Market Structure means measured monopoly power Nelson nondurable noted output positive relationship product differentiation profits promotion reducing regression relationship between advertising relative rise sales ratio sample significant Standard to-Sales Concentration statistical studies suggests Table Telser tests theory tion tising variables