Influence of Climate Change on the Changing Arctic and Sub-Arctic Conditions

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Jacques Nihoul
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 29, 2009 - Science - 232 pages
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The current warming trends in the Arctic may shove the Arctic system into a seasonally ice-free state not seen for more than one million years. The melting is accelerating, and researchers were unable to identify natural processes that might slow the deicing of the Arctic. Such substantial additional melting of Arctic and Antarctic glaciers and ice sheets would raise the sea level worldwide, flooding the coastal areas where many of the world's population lives. Studies, led by scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the University of Arizona, show that greenhouse gas increases over the next century could warm the Arctic by 3-5C in summertime. Thus, Arctic summers by 2100 may be as warm as they were nearly 130,000 years ago, when sea levels eventually rose up to 6 m higher than today.

 

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Contents

Global warming effects on the Arctic and SubArctic Seas
7
The NAO strange attractors
10
References
12
The case for global warming in the Arctic
13
How do we know we are not wrong?
15
Arctic change
16
Models
19
2007 sea ice loss the fast track of Arctic change
20
Conclusion and perspectives
121
References
122
Observing and interpreting the seasonal variability of the oceanographic fluxes passing through Lancaster Sound of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
125
Introduction
126
Mooring instrumentation
127
Ocean parameters
128
Ice velocities drafts and fluxes
132
Ocean fluxes
135

Conclusion
22
References
23
A coherency between the North Atlantic temperature nonlinear trend the eastern Arctic ice extent drift and change in the atmospheric circulation regi...
24
North Atlantic and Arctic SST trends
26
Modulation of the ice extent in Kara Sea
27
Rapid increasing of SST in Kara and Laptev Seas
30
Modulation of the sea level pressure over northern Asia
31
Changes in atmospheric circulation regimes
33
Discussion and conclusion
34
References
35
results of satellite multisensor study
37
Climatology
38
Satellites and sensors
40
Simulation of the AMSRE brightness temperatures and retrieval algorithm development
41
Data
44
Mesoscale cyclones
45
Bering Sea
50
Discussion and conclusions
53
References
54
a review
57
Sea ice extent and thickness
59
Physicalchemical variables
61
Sea ice biota
64
Discussion and conclusions
66
References
70
a perspective on climate change
73
Data mining
75
General properties of the data set
76
The role of irradiance
78
Onset of the productive season
79
Cumulative irradiance
80
The role of nutrients
82
The contribution of new and regenerated production
85
Implications perspectives and future research
86
References
89
Production of phytoplankton in the Arctic Seas and its response on recent warming
94
Materials and methods
96
Primary production
97
Response on recent warming
103
Conclusions
107
References
108
the case study of the northern North Atlantic and some perspectives for the Arctic
109
Present distribution of deep water masses in northern North Atlantic
111
Calibration of proxies on surface sediments from northern North Atlantic
112
The Nd and Pb isotopical tool
114
Results and discussion
115
Long term stability of deep current supplies ODSP 646
117
Wind forcing
137
Conclusion
141
References
142
what are the consequences of the global changes?
144
River water and sediment discharges
150
Probable increase of DOC concentration and flux by 2100
151
Probable increase of POC and TOC fluxes by 2100
154
Discussion
155
Conclusion
157
References
158
Mechanisms of the recent sea ice decay in the Arctic Ocean related to the PacifictoAtlantic pathway
161
Arctic pathway
164
Windinduced ice cover variability
166
Discussion
168
References
169
Frontal Zones in the Norwegian Greenland Barents and Bering Seas
171
Definitions
174
Frontal zones in the Norwegian and Greenland seas
176
Frontal zones in the Barents Sea
181
Frontal zones in the Bering Sea
184
Conclusions
188
References
189
How do the very smallsized aquatic microbes influence the very largescale biogeochemical cycles?
191
Physiological characteristics large standing stocks and unique positions of microbes in pelagic food webs
192
Foodweb functioning
197
Biogeochemical roles of microbes
200
Environmental effects including climate change
201
General conclusions
205
References
206
Social economic legal and political issues of the Russian Arctic
208
The population of Russian Arctic
211
Oil and gas of Russian Arctic
212
Russian Arctic economy
214
Legal regional of Arctic
215
The second Internationalization principle that was proposed still in the early 1970s is supported by USA Norway Denmark
216
Struggle for the Lomonosov Ridge
218
Conclusions
219
References
220
Two US programs during IPY
221
The Arctic Observing Network
222
The NSF Arctic Observing Network
223
International relationships
226
BESTBSIERP
227
Programmatic structure
228
Conclusions
231
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