## Information theory: an introduction for scientists and engineers |

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2TWN amount of information amplitude bandwidth baseband baseband signal binary binary symmetric channel bit per letter bits per second carrier carrier-to-noise ratio channel capacity coherent detector communication system cycles per second decibels decoder defined definition of information demodulation detection digit group discrete channel efficient energy equally likely outcomes equally probable error rate example expected value experiment false alarm rate finite number formula frequency modulation function Gaussian hypersphere ideal identified incoherent independent information associated information rate information source information theory input integration large number less linear rectifier detectors log2 maximum message source noise observation operation output parity checks particular message perfect shuffle possible probability distribution pulse received signal reversible encoder RF BAND sample signal absent signal is present signal power signal-to-noise ratio signaling rate spectral power density spectrum Suppose threshold tion to-noise ratio transmission transmitted signal variance voice circuit waveforms